Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) Market Report, 2005-2006
  • Feb/2006
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As we all know, the world is facing some serious problems such as energy shortage and environment deterioration in the 21st century. As a consequence, the related auto industry is facing great challenges. In the 21st century, the traditional auto industry that is mainly based on oil must switch to new energies, supported hi-tech industry. And environmental protection and energy saving are becoming more and more important in this process.


In the 1970s, many famous auto companies such as Ford and Toyota started to develop Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) due to the oil shortage. But finally, new vehicles mainly driven by the electric power did not go very far, which resulted from fuel cells problems. Therefore, some large companies turned to another field: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). For more than 30 years’ research and development, Toyota developed Prius, a new HEV put into market in 1997. In the following years, some large auto companies such as Toyota and GM have been or prepared to put some HEVs into market. But in the list of the most fuel efficiency vehicles 2005 in the US, the top two positions are still occupied by Toyota’s Prius and Honda’s Insight.


HEVs that have been or prepared to put into market




Prius I



Prius II






Lexus RX 400h









Accord Hybrid



HEV No-Step Bus






Chevrolet Silverado



GMC-Sierra Pickup



Saturn-VUE SUV



GM ChevyEquinox



Chevrolet Tahoe



GMC Yukon



Dodge Durango SUV



DodgeRam Heavy Truck



Mercedes-Benz S-Class



Mariner HEV



Escape SUV



HEV Click










Considering the importance of the HEV market, many famous auto manufacturers invest a lot into this field. From 2000 to 2005, the whole production amount of HEVs has increased by nearly 6 times and, among these vehicles, a very large proportion is from Japan’s manufacturers Toyota and Honda.


Though the HEV market gradually grows into maturation, some Chinese manufacturers and research & development centers still invest a lot into the field of BEV that has already been abandoned by other world famous auto manufacturers. On October 1st, 2005, that is, two months before Toyota and First Automotive Works’ PRIUS was released, China published new HEV Standards. China’s new HEV Standards take reference of other standards such as ISO, ECE, EN, etc. Obviously, the purpose is to avoid taking Toyota’s HEV Standards, but some reference standards are also based on Toyota’s technology. So inevitably China’s new HEV standards include some Toyota’s standards. According to China’s new HEV Standards, many standards are not involved in patent technology except some key parts such as fuel cell and motor and some patent technology such as Electrical Systems. So, any auto companies can manufacture HEVs. After China Prius was put into market in China, many Chinese auto manufacturers declared their HEV plans.


Chinese Auto Manufacturers’ HEV Plans




China Prius has been put into market


Self-developed HEV Bus has been put into market

Dong Feng

Self-developed HEV Bus has been put into market

Chang An

CM9 Model has been produced and, prepared to start mass production in 2008

Shanghai Volkswagen

HEV Touran will start small scale production in 2008

BYD Auto

HEV Flyer

Shanghai GM

Shanghai Auto and GM signed an agreement on energy saving and environment-friendly vehicles


Hysoul 305 Model has been produced and, planed to mass production in 2008


BSG/ISG HEV has been produced and, prepared to mass production at the end of 2006



In the field of research and development of traditional auto technologies, there is still a big gap between Chinese auto manufacturers and their foreign counterparts. Due to the fact that foreign auto companies do not want to transfer their core technologies, many Chinese auto manufacturers took step to introduce some advanced and mature automobiles into home market in order to gain some advantages. From a long-term view, most of the manufacturers will lose the momentum of auto self-developing, and gradually they will completely depend upon foreign auto manufacturers. And Chinese auto industry will then be trapped into a vicious circle and finally will gradually only become the manufacturing center of the world auto industry.


As a new rising energy saving and environment-friendly vehicle, HEV is an ideal choice for Chinese auto manufacturers, because the technology and the market of HEV are still increasing quickly. There is small gap between Chinese auto companies and their foreign counterparts. So, it provides a good opportunity for Chinese manufacturers to master the world-class auto technologies. Now, Chinese auto companies are facing great challenges, especially the shortage of R&D funds, but if the HEV finally become the main vehicles, those who have the advanced technologies of HEV such as Toyota, will get great advantages in the international auto market. The worst thing is if none of Chinese auto manufacturers mastered the self-developing technology, because they would probably all have to buy Toyota’s HEV technology. Then, China’s HEV market would be monopolized by Toyota. For Chinese government and those who want to master the self-developing technology, this is a “nightmare”. So, mastering the self-developing technology of HEV is the only way to prevent Chinese HEV market to be monopolized by some other foreign auto companies, such as Toyota.

1 Analysis of the Outside Environment of HEV Industry
1.1 Environmental factor analysis
1.1.1 The sharing rate of air pollution elements such as CO, HC and NOx etc. caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Beijing
1.1.2 The sharing rate of air pollution elements such as CO, HC and NOx etc. caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Shanghai
1.2 Pressure of oil shortage
1.2.1 The shortage of the international crude oil caused great rise of gasoline's price
1.2.2 The increasing amount of motor vehicles caused serious energy shortage in China

2 Survey of International and China's HEV Industry
2.1 Survey of international HEV market
2.1.1Analysis of Japan's HEV industry
2.1.2 Analysis of American HEV industry
2.1.3 Analysis of European HEV industry
2.2 Survey of China's HEV industry

3 Survey of the Development of HEV Technology
3.1 The concept of HEV
3.2 Survey of international HEV technology
3.3 Survey of China's HEV technology

4 Survey of International HEV Manufacturers
4.1 Toyota
4.1.1 Toyota Prius
4.1.2 Other Toyota HEVs 
4.2 Honda
4.2.1 Honda Insight
4.2.2 Honda Civic
4.2.3 Honda Accord
4.3 Ford
4.3.1 Ford Escape
4.3.2 Other Ford HEVs
4.4 GM
4.4.1 Chevrolet Tahoe Two-mode Hybrid 2008
4.4.2 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid 2007
4.5 Daimler-Chrysler
4.6 Hyundai
4.7 Other Auto Manufacturers

5 Survey of China's HEV Manufacturers
5.1 FAW
5.2 Dong Feng
5.3 Shanghai Auto
5.4 Chang An
5.5 BYD
5.6 Chery
5.7 Shanghai Maple

6 Analysis of HEVs and Other Energy Saving and Environment-friendly Vehicles
6.1 HEVs and diesel vehicles
6.1.1 Diesel vehicle's position in international auto market
6.1.2 Diesel vehicle's future in China
6.2 The "perfect" solution: Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle
6.3 BEV, great challenges from high cost
6.3.1 High cost caused great difficulties in developing BEVs
6.3.2 BEV, an ideal choice but face technology barriers

7 HEV Industry's Future and Difficulties
7.1 Analysis of HEV industry's future
7.1.1 Momentum from auto companies' competitiveness
7.1.2 Motive from energy saving and environmental protection
7.1.3 Promotion from the development of technologies
7.1.4 Support from related policies
7.2 Analysis of the challenges of HEV industry 
7.2.1 To break though the technology barriers
7.2.2 To challenge Toyota's strategy in China's HEV market

8 Conclusion and Suggestions
8.1 Conclusion of HEV industry
8.2 Suggestions of China's HEV industry
8.2.1 Cost reduction, key to win the market
8.2.2 Related policies to support HEV industry 
8.2.3 China's auto manufactures, work together to take challenges
The sharing rate of CO in air pollution caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Beijing
The sharing rate of HC in air pollution caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Beijing
The sharing rate of NOx in air pollution caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Beijing
The sharing rate of CO in air pollution caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Shanghai
The sharing rate of HC in air pollution caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Shanghai
The sharing rate of NOx in air pollution caused by motor vehicles' tail gas emission in Shanghai
The price index of international crude oil, 2004-2005
The price index of China’s gasoline, 2004-2005
The trend analysis of oil consumption by motor vehicles and China's oil consumption, 2005-2020
Production amount of HEVs, 2000-2005
The proportion of HEV in international auto market, 2005
The sales proportion of HEV in American market 
Top manufactures sales amount of HEVs in global market till to October, 2005 Sales Amount of American Three HEVs 
Series Hybrid Electric System
Parallel Hybrid Electric System 
Combined Hybrid Electric System, Prius used THS (Toyota Hybrid System)
Sales of Toyota Prius, 1997-2005 
GM Chevrolet Tahoe Two-mode Hybrid, 2008
GM Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid, 2007
"S-Class" Benz's Hybrid Synergy Drive
"S-class" Benz HEV
Hyundai HEV Concept Car "Portico"
FAW HEV-type Red Flag
China Prius
HEV-type Touran
Hybrid-S based on the design of Flyer
Chery HEV
Maple Hysoul 305
Market share distribution of European Diesel Vehicles, 1990-2005
Market share distribution of American Diesel Vehicles, 2000-2005
Market share distribution of Japanese Diesel Vehicles, 2005
The production amount of FAW-Volkswagen's Diesel Vehicles, 2002-2005
HEVs that have been or prepared to be put into market by world famous auto manufacturers
The main consumers of Japanese HEVs in American market
Parameters of Japan's HEVs that have been put into American market 
Chinese auto manufacturers' plan on HEV developemnt
Survey of the HEV standards in other countries
Survey of HEV manufacturers'patent applications, 1997-2004
Amount of HEV patent applications by foreign auto manufacturers
Parameters of Prius I and Prius II
Parameters of Honda Insight
Parameters of Toyota Accord
Ford's HEV plan, 2005-2008
Parameters of Chery's BGS HEV
Parameters of Chery's ISG HEV
Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles made by foreign auto manufacturers
Governmental support to the development of HEV
Tax Benefits of HEVs in America

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