Global and China Hybrid Electric Vehicle Industry Report, 2007-2008
  • Jun/2008
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Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel saving and environment friendly, have stolen the markets as international oil price soared up. It was reported that sales of Toyota Prius series HEVs is out of stock in international market. Grasping the opportunity, Toyota announced that it is developing a new generation of Lithium Iron Phosphate battery for HEVs with PANASONIC, which will be officially put into mass production in 2009, to strengthen its leading position in HEV market. In June 2008, Toyota disclosed that it will invest in Australia to make HEVs, which will be Toyota's third HEV production base abroad after the U.S.A. and China. Toyota will invest in its Melbourne's factory to produce CAMRY HEVs, and it plans to eventually achieve the target of an annual production of 10,000 Vehicles.

Toyota's sales of HEVs were 312,500 units in 2006, increasing by 33% over 2005, and 429,000 units in 2007. The U.S. market is still the largest HEV market, where only Toyota sold 277,750 HEVs in 2007. Toyota's Prius is still the No. 1 in HEV market with its sales reaching nearly 200,000 units in 2007. According to Toyota's original plan, its sales target of HEVs reach one million in several years after 2010, which will surely be achieved ahead of schedule, due to skyrocketing international oil prices. All major auto producers in the world have released their plans to produce HEVs successively.

 HEV Plans of Global Key Auto Producers, 2008-2010


Source: Research in China

HEVs are sold well in the world markets. However, it seems that Chinese consumers show no interest in them. Taking Toyota's Prius with the largest sales as an example, its production and sales in China were only 168 units and 80 units separately in the first quarter of 2008, and about 300 units in 2007 according to the statistics of China Association of Automotive Manufacturers. Compared with Prius sales of nearly 200,000 vehicles in the world market, HEVs have seemingly not acclimatized themselves to China. Actually, we believe that price is the most important factor to restrict HEV sales in China. At present, Prius is sold in China at a price of about CNY280,000, but it is only US$215.000 (less than CNY150,000) in the U.S. Additionally, Prius buyers in the U.S. can enjoy various kinds of allowances valued at over US$2,000. In May 2008, HEV prices in the U.S. rose successively in tandem with jumps in oil prices and price of Prius, Camry and Lexus increased by US$400, US$100 and US$300 respectively in May. Furthermore, maintenance cost of HEVs is high. The cost of power train of HEVs is over 30% of the total and the follow-up maintenance cost is not low. Although the government advocates the use of HEVs and Toyota promotes the advantage of HEVs, it is also an issue to persuade people to purchase HEVs.

Although the Chinese consumers have showed little interest in purchasing HEVs, China auto manufacturers have also launched their own plans to produce HEVs successively. China HEV market is in the development stage, but if China allows oil prices to be decided by market, and adopts the policy to offer subsidy to HEV producers, which will push down selling prices of HEVs, then China HEV producers will have a harvest.  

1. External Environment of HEV industry 
1.1 Promotion by Environment Protection 
1.1.1 Contribution Rates of CO, HC and NOx in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emissions in Beijing   
1.1.2 Contribution Rates of CO, HC and NOx in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emissions in Shanghai
1.2 Increasing Pressure on Gasoline Shortage
1.2.1 China Gasoline Prices to Soar Driven by Global Crude Oil Shortage
1.2.2 Intensified Energy Shortage by A Fast Development of Auto Industry 

2. Overview of Global and China HEV Industry  
2.1 World HEV Industry
2.1.1 Japanese HEV Industry   
2.1.2 U.S. HEV Industry
2.1.3 European HEV Industry
2.1.4 U.S. Top 10 Best-selling of HEVs in 2007
2.2 China HEV industry 

3. HEV Technology Development 
3.1 HEV Definition
3.2 World HEV Technology Development
3.3 China HEV Technology Development

4. Global HEV Manufacturers  
4.1 Toyota
4.1.1 Prius
4.1.2 Other HEV Models 
4.2 Honda
4.2.1 Insight
4.2.2 Civic
4.2.3 Accord
4.3 Ford
4.3.1 Escape
4.3.2 Other HEV Models
4.4 GM 
4.4.1 2008 "Chevrolet Tahoe Two-mode Hybrid" 
4.4.2 2007 "Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid"
4.5 Daimler-Chrysler
4.6 Hyundai
4.7 Mazda
4.8 Other manufacturers

5. Chinese HEV Manufacturers
5.1 FAW-WW
5.2 Dongfeng Motor Corporation (DFM)
5.3 Saic Group 
5.4 Changan Group
5.5 BYD
5.7 Shanghai Maple 
5.8 FOTON 

6. Comparison of HEV and Other Environment-friendly & Energy-saving Vehicles 
6.1 Diesel Vehicles and HEV 
6.1.1 International Status of Diesel Vehicles
6.1.2 China Diesel Vehicle Development 
6.2 Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle
6.3 Pure Electric Vehicle
6.3.1 High Cost
6.3.2 Technology Difficulty
6.4 Other Electric Vehicles

7. HEV Development Prospects and Obstacles  
7.1 HEV Development Prospects
7.1.1 Competition Driven by Internal Factors
7.1.2 Energy-saving & Environment Protection Driven by External Factors 
7.1.3 A Great Promotion Driven by Technical Progress  
7.1.4 Promotion by Government Support 
7.2 HEV Development Obstacles
7.2.1 Respond to Technical Obstacles & Deficiencies as Soon as Possible
7.2.2 To Deal with Toyota Market Strategies in China

8. Conclusions and Proposals 
8.1 Conclusions
8.2 Proposals on China HEV Industry Development
8.2.1 To Gain Markets by Lowering Cost 
8.2.2 To Make Support Policies for HEVs
Contribution Rate of CO in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emission in Beijing
Contribution Rate of HC in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emission in Beijing
Contribution Rate of NOx in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emission in Beijing
Contribution Rate of CO in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emission in Shanghai
Contribution Rate of HC in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emission in Shanghai
Contribution Rate of NOx in Atmospheric Pollutants from Vehicle Emission in Shanghai
International Crude Oil Price Trend, Feb.-May 2008
China Gasoline Prices Trend, 1998-2007
Trend of Oil Consumption Ratio of China Auto to National Total, 2005-2020
HEVs Available in the Market by Global Key Auto Manufacturers  
HEV Plans Released by Global Auto Companies, 2008-2010
World HEV Output, 2000-2007
HEV Proportion to the World Total Auto Market, 2007
Sales of HEVs in the United States, 2002-2007
Target Consumers of Main Japanese HEV Models in the U.S.
Specification Parameters of Main Japanese HEV Models in the U.S.
Sales Ratios of Three Major HEVs in the U.S. in 2007
Production and Sales of Prius in China, 2005-1Q2008
HEV Production Plans of China Auto Manufacturers  
Series Hybrid System 
Chart:Parallel hybrid system
Toyota Hybrid system(widely used in PRIUS)
International HEV Standards
Patent Applications by Main HEV Producers 
Volume of Patent Applications by Main HEV Producers 
Comparison of Parameters between Prius First Generation & Second Generation 
Prius' Specification Parameters   
Toyota Prius
Estima HEVs
HEV Technology Parameters of Toyota Carmy 
HEV Technology Parameters of Toyota Lexus 
HEV Technology Parameters of Toyota Highlander
Insight HEVs
HEV Technology Parameters of Honda Insight
Civic HEVs
HEV Technology Parameters of Honda CICIV 
Accord HEVs
HEV Technology Parameters of Honda Accord
Ford Escape HEVs 
Ford Fusion HEVs
HEV Technology Parameters of Ford Mercury Mariner
GM's 2008 Chevrolet Tahoe Two-mode Hybrid
GM's 2007 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid
"S-Class" Mercedes-Benz Equipped with Hybrid Device
"S-Class" Mercedes-Benz HEVs
Hyundai Portico
HEV Technology Parameters of Mazda Tribute 
Mazda Tribute HEV
HEV Technology Parameters of Nissian Altima 
China Prius
FAW-WW Besturn B70HEV 
Specifications of DFM EQ7200HEV 
Touran HEV
Passat HEV   
Lacrosse HEV
Changan Jiexun HEV
HEV Technology Parameters of Changan Jiexun
HYbrid-S Based on the Design of Flyer
HEV Technology Parameters of CHERY BSG
HEV Technology Parameters of CHERY ISG
Hysoul of Shanghai Maple 
Growth of European Diesel Vehicle Market Shares, 1990-2007
U.S. Diesel Vehicle Sales Growth, 2000 -2006 
Japan Diesel Vehicle Sales
FAW-WW Diesel Vehicle Growth, 2002-2006
Hydrogen Fuel-cell Vehicles Developed by Overseas Auto Producers
GM Hy-wire
Honda FCX
Tax Breaks for U.S. HEVs

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