Global and China L4 Autonomous Driving Industry Report, 2019-2020
  • Apr.2020
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Giants gain high finance.
Progress of L4 autonomous driving is greatly hampered over the recent two years, causing OEMs’ and Tier 1 suppliers’ delay in L4 launches. Yet, the top L4 companies still raised huge funds in the past year.

L4 1_副本.png

In 2019, Baidu, Pony.ai and WeRide succeeded in commercial pilot of Robotaxi on complex urban roads in limited areas, a crucial step for L4 autonomous driving in China.

L4 autonomous driving technologies starts to find real application but gets deployed by most players first in one scenario or two as the current L4 cannot be perfectly suited to all driving scenarios.

It is shown from the planning of the OEMs and the providers of technical solutions for autonomous driving that L4 autonomous driving will be commercialized in limited scenarios ahead of open scenarios in the following three to five years.

Baidu, UISEE, DeepBlue and Trunk Tech all have conducted L4 trials in limited scenarios such as parks, ports, and airports. Besides, Baidu, Momenta, Bosch, ZongMu and UISEE are vigorously deploying in the parking lot scenario.

Deployments in open scenarios cover Robotaxi on urban roads and autonomous trucks on the expressways. In the Robotaxi field, Waymo, Baidu, Pony.ai, and WeRide have carried out pilot projects in both China and the U.S. in specific areas of a city, manned by safety officers, and WeRide is already fully open to the public in Nov.2019. Software & hardware technology iteration and larger-scale tests are essential for open Robotaxi in wider areas.

L4 2_副本.png

Technically, the current L4 autonomous vehicles for tests (or trial operation) are largely provided with the single-car intelligence solution. For safer autonomous driving, solution providers make vehicle’s environment perception capability optimized ever. For instance, Voyage’s G2 autonomous vehicle carries Velodyne's VLS-128 LiDAR system with a detection range up to 300 meters, tripling the capability of the 64-channel LiDAR installed on the 1st-Gen autonomous vehicle. Boasting 29 cameras, Waymo’s next-generation autonomous driving system enables a detection range of 500 meters whist improving LiDARs’ performance significantly.

Also, it is of vital importance to enhance vehicle’s motion perception competence. High-precision positioning can be realized by integrating high-precision positioning modules (composed of 5G modules, IMU and HD maps).

L4 3_副本.png

In the short term, either single-car intelligence solution or strong field terminal solution fulfills L4 autonomous driving in the confined areas, but in the long run, collaborative vehicle infrastructure system (CVIS) is the mainstream technology roadmap for L4 autonomous driving. Through CVIS, the vehicle is fully connected to the “X” as spatiotemporal dynamic traffic information are collected and integrated whilst the active safety control of vehicle and the collaborative management on roads are done for safer running of autonomous vehicle.

By analyzing the test data, Baidu concludes that CVIS can solve 54% of the problems encountered in road tests and 62% of the takeovers incurred by single-car intelligence, adding redundancy for autonomous driving safety.

1. Overview of L4 Autonomous Driving

1.1 Definition and Grading of L4 Autonomous Driving
1.1.1 Definition (SAE)
1.1.2 SAE J3016
1.1.3 Autonomous Driving Ratings in China
1.1.4 ODD and Autonomous Driving Levels
1.1.5 L4+Map Fencing
1.2 Policies on Autonomous Driving
1.2.1 Policies Boost Autonomous Driving Industry
1.2.2 Development of Autonomous Driving Industry in China
1.2.3 Major Countries’ Policies on Autonomous Driving 
1.2.4 China’s Policies on Autonomous Driving
1.3 Autonomous Driving Tests
1.3.1 Applicants for Road Tests in California
1.3.2 Distribution of Major Autonomous Driving Test Sites Worldwide
1.3.3 Construction of Major Autonomous Driving Test Sites in Foreign Countries
1.3.4 Distribution of Autonomous Driving Test & Demonstration Bases in China
1.3.5 Construction of Major Autonomous Driving Test Sites in China

2. Technical Analysis of L4 Autonomous Driving

2.1 Basic Requirements of Autonomous Driving on Vehicles
2.1.1 Autonomous Driving Standard Organizations
2.1.2 Typical L4 Computing System Architecture
2.1.3 Typical L4 Autonomous Driving Computing Platform
2.1.4 Comparison of L4 Computing Platform Chips
2.1.5 Typical L4 Redundant Actuation Mechanism
2.1.6 Brake-By-Wire of L3/L4 Autonomous Driving
2.2 Comparison of L4 Technology Solutions
2.2.1 Comparison of OEMs’ Typical L4 Solutions
2.2.2 L4 Autonomous Driving Hardware Configuration of Main Solution Providers
2.3 L4 Technology Trends

3. Market Development and Forecast for L4 Autonomous Driving
3.1 Status Quo of Autonomous Driving
3.1.1 Comparison of Major L4 Autonomous Driving Companies
3.1.2 Collaborations among Major L4 Autonomous Driving Companies
3.2 Status Quo of Autonomous Driving Tests
3.2.1 Mileage Tests of Major Players in California, 2019
3.2.2 Disengagements in Autonomous Driving Test of Major Players
3.2.3 Tests in Beijing, 2019
3.3 Commercialization of L4 Autonomous Driving
3.3.1 Scenarios to which L4 Autonomous Driving Gets Applied 
3.3.2 Major Players’ Efforts in L4 Autonomous Driving Commercialization
3.4 L4 Market Size
3.5 Implementation Plan of Major Players for L4 Autonomous Vehicles

4. Global L4 Autonomous Driving Companies
4.1 Waymo
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Development Course
4.1.3 Autonomous Driving Layout
4.1.4 Main Products
4.1.5 Autonomous Driving Operation
4.1.6 Partners
4.1.7 Development Strategy
4.2 GM Cruise
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 Financing
4.2.3 Main Products
4.2.4 Distribution of Test Projects and Manufacturing Bases
4.2.5 Business Layout
4.2.6 Business Planning
4.3 ZMP
4.3.1 Profile
4.3.2 Development Course
4.3.3 Distribution of Subsidiaries and Revenue, 2017-2019
4.3.4 Product Solutions
4.3.5 Presence in China
4.3.6 Shared Mobility Business
4.4 NuTonomy
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Product Solutions
4.4.3 Partners
4.5 Argo AI
4.5.1 Profile
4.5.2 Team
4.5.3 Main Operations
4.5.4 Business Layout
4.5.5 Development Trend
4.5.6 Development Strategy
4.6 Aurora
4.6.1 Profile
4.6.2 Founding Team
4.6.3 Cooperation with OEMs
4.6.4 Main Business
4.7 Zoox
4.7.1 Profile
4.7.2 Main Products
4.7.3 Main Technologies
4.7.4 Autonomous Driving Test
4.7.5 Development Strategy
4.8 AImotive
4.8.1 Profile
4.8.2 Global Presence and Partners
4.8.3 Financing
4.8.4 Development Course
4.8.5 Main Products
4.8.6 Autonomous Driving Development
4.9 AKKA
4.9.1 Profile
4.9.2 Operation
4.9.3 Global Footprints
4.9.4 Main Products
4.9.5 Business Layout
4.10 Wayve
4.10.1 Profile
4.10.2 Technical Solutions
4.10.3 Development Plan
4.11 Voyage
4.11.1 Profile
4.11.2 Main Products
4.11.3 Technical Solutions
4.11.4 Robo-Taxi Layout
4.12 UBER

5. Chinese L4 Autonomous Driving Companies
5.1 Momenta
5.1.1 Profile
5.1.2 Main Technologies
5.1.3 Autonomous Vehicle Strategy
5.1.4 Main Products
5.1.5 Development Plan
5.2 Pony.ai
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 Development Course
5.2.3 Main Technologies and Tests
5.2.4 Main Products
5.2.5 Autonomous Driving Layout
5.2.6 Development Plan
5.3 WeRide
5.3.1 Profile
5.3.2 Core Team
5.3.3 Global Presence
5.3.4 Core Technologies
5.3.5 Development Course
5.3.6 Main Business
5.3.7 Autonomous Driving Operation
5.3.8 Partners
5.3.9 Development Plan
5.4 HoloMatic
5.4.1 Profile
5.4.2 Development Course
5.4.3 Production Layout
5.4.4 Main Products
5.5 Baidu Apollo
5.5.1 Profile
5.5.2 Product Solutions
5.5.3 Autonomous Driving Operation
5.5.4 Development Plan
5.6 UISEE
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 Development Course
5.6.3 Product Solutions
5.6.4 Commercialization
5.7 DeepBlue
5.7.1 Profile
5.7.2 Main Products
5.7.3 Intelligent Vehicle Business
5.8 DeepRoute.ai
5.8.1 Profile
5.7.2 Development Course
5.7.3 Technical Solutions
5.7.4 Autonomous Driving Layout
5.7.5 Strategic Cooperation
5.9 AutoX
5.9.1 Profile
5.9.2 Development Course
5.9.3 Main Technical Solutions
5.9.4 Autonomous Driving Deployment
5.9.5 Partners 
5.10 Didi Woya
5.10.1 Profile
5.10.2 Autonomous Driving Layout
5.11 Allride.ai
5.11.1 Profile
5.11.2 Development Course
5.11.3 Autonomous Driving Technology
5.11.4 Autonomous Driving Layout
5.12 QCraft
5.12.1 Profile
5.12.2 Development Course
5.12.3 Main Technologies
5.12.4 Autonomous Driving Commercialization Solutions
 

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