Multi-domain Computing and Zone Controller Research Report, 2022
  • July 2022
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Multi-domain computing and zone controller research: five design ideas advance side-by-side.

In the trend for higher levels of autonomous driving, intelligent vehicles pose more stringent requirements in the aspects such as computing power, communication bandwidth, software, and security. This trend facilitates the evolution of automotive E/E architectures from domain centralized to multi-domain integrated, and then to the (quasi) central computing architecture. At present, there are primarily following five types of automotive multi-domain computing design ideas: 

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The driving and parking integration & the cockpit and driving integration are the important directions multi-domain computing heads in.  

In terms of driving and parking integration, the low-speed parking function used to be integrated into cockpit domain to constitute a so-called cockpit-parking integrated solution. With the evolution to high computing power platforms, 2022 will be beyond doubt the first year of the development of L2+ driving and parking integration, and more vehicles will support multi-scenario autonomous driving, for example, turn signals for automatic lane change, ramp-to-ramp autonomous driving, home-AVP, and fully automated parking.

Cockpit-driving integration is the direction many OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers work towards. It is expected that mass production and installation of cockpit-driving integrated solutions will be achieved during 2024-2025. From chip vendors, it can be seen that Qualcomm 8795 chip that allows multi-domain integrated computing of cockpit and autonomous driving will be produced in quantities in 2024 at the earliest; Chinese suppliers like ThunderSoft and Haomo.AI have set about research and development; in addition to autonomous driving, NVIDIA Orin X will also fully integrate development of cockpit applications to enable fusion of autonomous driving and in-cabin algorithms through NVIDIA DRIVE IX software stack.

iMotion’s IDC high/low speed driving and parking integrated domain controller solution

iMotion concentrates on developing autonomous driving domain controllers. Following the acquisition of orders for more than 100,000 sets from ZEEKR 001 in October 2021, the company’s high computing power autonomous driving controllers have been designated by multiple first-tier OEMs like Great Wall Motor, Chery, Geely and SMART for a range of their vehicle models.

iMotion also launched a domain controller IDC product that integrates driving and parking capabilities like urban NOA and AVP. The IDC product has IDC MID (standard) and IDC HIGH (upgrade) versions, of which the standard version is to be delivered and mounted on new vehicle models of quite a few leading automakers in 2022.

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iMotion's end-to-end all-scenario intelligent driving solution takes the driving and parking integrated domain controller as the carrier. Based on L2++ intelligent driving and intelligent parking, this solution collects and trains unknown scene data and updates optimized algorithms by using hardware embedded points and remote software OTA update technology, and optimizing and verifying the big data closed-loop. It constantly improves intelligent driving algorithms in a bid to adapt to more complex scenarios, find application in ever more scenarios and eventually to be available to all scenarios.

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In addition to driving and parking integration, the integration of intelligent driving and intelligent cockpit domains is also a megatrend. iMotion is working with its partners to explore multi-domain integrated solutions.

Neusoft Reach's driving and parking integrated domain controllers keep upgrading and iterating.

Neusoft Reach’s fourth-generation autonomous driving domain controller X-Box is a new standard L2+ domain controller product developed according to SDV development model. Based on Horizon Journey 5 Series AI chips, the product offers L2+ driving and parking functions, and supports access of 8M cameras, 4D point cloud radars and LiDAR, with scenarios covering highways, urban expressways, some urban roads and multiple types of parking lots.

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X-Box adopts SOA software architecture design scheme, that is, software and algorithms are developed using the modular and service-oriented development model. The product enables cooperative device-cloud autonomous driving under data closed-loop mechanism, and supports new-generation automotive E/E architectures. It enables intra-domain and cross-domain service subscription and discovery, flexible software deployment, and rapid iteration of application layer, and realizes such functions as fully open system architecture, open multi-dimensional full-stack software capability and joint development, allowing partners to quickly develop applications and reuse software. It also provides abundant  software development tools for developer partners.

Meanwhile, in terms of safety and security X-Box is developed according to ISO 26262 functional safety and ISO 21434 cybersecurity standards. It implements the minimal risk strategy in typical driving and parking scenarios, and deploys secure boot/storage/upgrade/communication modules in connection systems at the vehicle, cloud and smartphone ends. It helps automakers to provide driving safety and cybersecurity guarantees for consumers. Neusoft Reach offers autonomous driving domain controller solutions for automakers at different tiers through standardized hardware, software platforms, and tool-based services.

SAIC Z-ONE's cockpit-driving integrated HPC
SAIC Z-ONE plans to spawn a two-domain integrated E/E architecture in 2024, that consists of two high-performance computing units (HPC) and four zone controllers. Thereof, the cockpit-driving integrated HPC will be used to create the modular and scalable software and hardware integrated architecture that combines intelligent cockpit and high-level autonomous driving.

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The vehicle central control domain has been the first to be mass-produced.

Some OEMs currently make crucial deployments in the integration of vehicle body, chassis and power domains into one central control domain that then combines with intelligent cockpit and intelligent driving domains to form a classic three-domain architecture. From time nodes, it can be seen that multiple vehicle models based on three-domain architectures were mass-produced and marketed during 2021-2022. The three-domain integrated architectures next will further introduce zone controllers for a smooth evolution to zonal architectures.

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Li Auto’s three-domain integrated architecture: LEEA 2.0
In June 2022, Li Auto unveiled L9, its newest model that adopts three-domain integrated architecture. The whole car is divided into three domains: central control domain, autonomous driving domain and intelligent cockpit domain. The central control domain controller fuses with power, body and some chassis functions, enabling multi-domain integration.

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Aptiv’s Central Vehicle Controller (CVC)
At the CES 2022, Aptiv showed Central Vehicle Controller (CVC), its body, power and chassis three-domain integrated controller. The CVC can serve as a power and body controller, propulsion and chassis controller, data network router, gateway, firewall, zone master and data storage hub all rolled into one – or it can perform a mix of some of those functions. It is applicable to zonal architectures.

Zone controllers are the key component that carries “multi-domain + central computing”.

Zonal Control Unit (ZCU) is the central hub and the zonal data center for different types of sensor collector/actuator drivers in the physical zones of vehicles. It is an effective solution to carry physical interfaces of vehicles, distribute power and balance different input/output controls in the zones, thus supporting cross-domain integration inside smart cars.

The ZCU can cut ECU usage, lower wiring harnesses cost greatly, and reduce weight and communication interfaces, saving space and enabling higher utilization of computing power. At present, most OEMs have planned the use of 2 to 6 ZCUs in their next-generation multi-domain computing architectures.

Tesla’s ZCU Configuration
In Tesla’s case, the central computing architecture of Model 3 uses three ZCUs respectively in the front body control module, the left body control module and the right body control module. They take on power distribution, drive and logic control in all physical zones. Tesla Model Y uses fewer ZCUs (2 units), cancels the front body control module, and integrates the function into the left and right body control modules, which means further integration of ZCU functions.

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Aptiv’s ZCU Product - Power Data Center (PDC)
In January 2022, Aptiv introduced Power Data Center (PDC), its zone controller product that is installed on the front and rear sides of vehicle body.

Aptiv PDC abstracts the inputs/outputs (I/O) of sensors and actuators around the vehicle from the computing power (OSP, CVC, etc. responsible for processing), and also significantly simplifies hardware interchangeability by eliminating the device layer’s dependence on the computing layer via standardized service-based APIs.

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1 Evolution of Multi-Domain Computing
1.1 Evolution of Multi-Domain Integrated Computing and Central Computer
1.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Promotes Hardware, Software, Communication and Power Upgrades  
1.3 Three Evolution Stages of Zonal EEA 
1.3.1 Three Evolution Stages of Zonal EEA: Features of Zonal EEA 1.0 
1.3.2 Three Evolution Stages of Zonal EEA: Features of Zonal EEA 2.0
1.3.3 Three Evolution Stages of Zonal EEA: Features of Zonal EEA 3.0
1.3.4 Three Evolution Stages of Zonal EEA: The Most Common Evolution Logic
1.4 Challenges to Zonal EEA and Central Computing Platform (1)
1.5 Challenges to Zonal EEA and Central Computing Platform (2)
1.6 Challenges to Zonal EEA and Central Computing Platform (3)
1.7 HPC + Zonal EEA Furthers the Restructuring of the Automotive Value Chain

2 Typical Multi-Domain Computing Design Ideas
2.1 Status Quo of Multi-Domain Computing: Five Types of Integration Ideas
2.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Idea 1: Power + Chassis + Body Domains (Central Control Domain)
2.2.1 Central Control Domain and Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: Volkswagen iCAS1
2.2.2 Summary of Central Controller Domain Solutions of OEMs
2.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Idea 2: Cockpit + Autonomous Driving Domain Integration (Cockpit and Driving Integration)
2.3.1 Cockpit and Driving Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: Autolink
2.3.2 Cockpit and Driving Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: Cockpit and Driving Integrated Computing Platform SAIC Z-ONE 3.0
2.3.3 Cockpit and Driving Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: Bosch's Future-Oriented Cockpit and Driving Integrated Computing Platform
2.4 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Idea 3: Cockpit Domain + Body Domain
2.4.1 Cockpit + Body Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: PATEO CONNECT+
2.4.2 Cockpit + Body Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: Geely 
2.5 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Idea 4: Chassis Domain + Intelligent Driving Domain
2.5.1 Chassis + Intelligent Driving Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: Great Wall Motor
2.5.2 Chassis + Intelligent Driving Multi-Domain Integrated Computing: NIO 
2.6 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Idea 5: (Quasi) Central Computing + Zone Controller
2.6.1 Summary of (Quasi) Central Computing + Zone Controller Solutions of OEMs (1)
2.6.2 Summary of (Quasi) Central Computing + Zone Controller Solutions of OEMs (2)
2.6.3 Summary of (Quasi) Central Computing + Zone Controller Solutions of OEMs (3)
2.6.4 Summary of (Quasi) Central Computing + Zone Controller Solutions of OEMs (4)
2.7 Summary of Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Solutions
2.7.1 SOP Timeline of Multi-Domain Integrated and Centralized Architectures of Major Automakers
2.7.2 Layout of Main Tier 1 Suppliers in the Trend for Cross-Domain Integrated EEA (1)
2.7.3 Layout of Main Tier 1 Suppliers in the Trend for Cross-Domain Integrated EEA (2)
2.7.4 Layout of Main Tier 1 Suppliers in the Trend for Cross-Domain Integrated EEA (3) 

3 Multi-Domain Computing Key Systems
3.1 Zone Controller
3.1.1 Introduction to Zone Controller
3.1.2 Typical Layout Scheme and Function Assignment of Zone Controller
3.1.3 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Vehicle Zonal Power Distribution Center (1)
3.1.4 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Vehicle Zonal Power Distribution Center (2)
3.1.5 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Vehicle Zonal Power Distribution Center (3)
3.1.6 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Vehicle Zonal Communication Center (1)
3.1.7 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Vehicle Zonal Communication Center (2)
3.1.8 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Zone Functions and Drive Center (1)
3.1.9 Three Functions of Zone Controller: Zone Functions and Drive Center (2)
3.1.10 Advantages of Zonal Control Architecture: Fewer Network Nodes and Higher Communication Efficiency
3.1.11 Advantages of Zonal Control Architecture: Lower Wiring Harness Cost and Lighter Weight
3.1.12 Number and Functional Planning of Zone Controllers of OEMs (1)
3.1.13 Number and Functional Planning of Zone Controllers of OEMs (2)
3.1.14 Zone Controller Solutions of Tier 1 Suppliers
3.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing SoC
3.2.1 Multi-Domain Computing SoC Is the Next Priority of Chip Vendors
3.2.2 Multi-domain Computing SoC Solutions of Chip Vendors (1)
3.2.3 Multi-domain Computing SoC Solutions of Chip Vendors (2) 
3.2.4 Multi-Domain Computing Solution of SemiDrive: Central Computing Architecture SCCA 1.0 (1)
3.2.5 Multi-Domain Computing Solution of SemiDrive: Central Computing Architecture SCCA 1.0 (2)
3.2.6 NXP's Multi-Domain Computing Solution: S32G High Performance Gateway Computing Chip
3.2.7 Multi-Domain Computing Solution Co-developed by Horizon Robotics and SemiDrive: High Performance Computing Cluster XCG Gen 1
3.2.8 Multi-Domain Computing Solution of EnjoyMove Technology: EMOS High Performance Computing Platform
3.2.9 Multi-Domain Computing Solution of Tesla: Central Computing Module (CCM)
3.3 Multi-Domain Computing Software Architecture
3.3.1 Evolution of Software Architecture Promotes Decoupling of Software and Hardware
3.3.2 SOA Software Architecture: Development Trends
3.3.3 SOA Software Architecture: Technical Features
3.3.4 SOA Software Architecture: Advantages of Software Platform
3.3.5 SOA Software Architecture: Open Ecosystem
3.3.6 SOA Software Architecture: Practical Cases Based on Zonal EEA
3.3.7 Development Focus of Multi-Domain Computing Software: Operating System (OS)
3.3.8 Development Focus of Multi-Domain Computing Software: Unified Software Architecture Platform (Example: ARM SOAFEE Architecture)
3.3.9 Development Focus of Multi-Domain Computing Software: Operating System Integration through Hypervisors in the Multi-Domain Trend
3.3.10 Multi-Domain Computing Software Platform Case: ArcherMind’s Fusion SOA Software Platform
3.3.11 Multi-Domain Computing Software Solutions (1)
3.3.12 Multi-Domain Computing Software Solutions (2)
3.4 Multi-Domain Computing Communication Architecture
3.4.1 Communication Architecture Evolves from CAN/LIN Bus to Ethernet in the Trend for Multi-Domain Computing 
3.4.2 TSN-Based Zonal Architecture 
3.4.3 Vehicle Cross-Domain TSN Protocol Stack: EnjoyMove Technology Was the First One to Launch and Mass-Produce 
3.4.4 Communication Architecture Upgrades of OEMs: Ethernet + High-Speed Gateway Server

4 Multi-Domain Computing and Zone Controller Technology Layout of Chinese Tier 1 Suppliers
4.1 Neusoft Reach
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Product Matrix
4.1.3 4th-Generation Autonomous Driving Domain Controller
4.1.4 Universal Domain Controller
4.1.5 Commercial Vehicle ADAS Domain Controller
4.1.6 Next-Generation Vehicle "Operating System": Automotive Basic Software Platform NeuSAR
4.1.7 Domain Controller Software Development Platform: NeuSAR DS
4.1.8 Basic Software: NeuSAR Acquired ASIL-D Functional Safety Certificate
4.2 iMotion
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 Full-Stack Self-Development Capability
4.2.3 Driving and Parking Integrated Intelligent Driving Domain Controller (IDC) (1)
4.2.4 Driving and Parking Integrated Intelligent Driving Domain Controller (IDC) (2)
4.2.5 Data Closed-Loop System
4.3 Desay SV
4.3.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Central Computing Platform
4.3.2 Aurora Intelligent Computing Platform
4.3.3 Aurora Intelligent Computing Platform: Main Features
4.3.4 Aurora Intelligent Computing Platform: Storage and Computing Integration
4.3.5 Aurora Intelligent Computing Platform: Scalable Multi-Board Design
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Major Customers
4.4.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Walking On Two Legs
4.4.4 Multi-Domain Integration Route Based on Cockpit Domain
4.4.5 Next-Generation Multi-Domain Integrated Intelligent Cockpit Platform
4.5 Huawei
4.5.1 Computing and Communication Architecture (CCA): VCU Central Computing + 3 to 5 VIU Zone Controllers
4.5.2 Computing and Communication Architecture (CCA): System Framework and Full-Stack Solutions
4.6 Technomous
4.6.1 Profile
4.6.2 Technical Advantages
4.6.3 Core Technologies (1)
4.6.4 Core Technologies (2)
4.6.5 Core Technologies (3) 
4.6.6 E/E Architecture Planning
4.6.7 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Cockpit and Driving Integration
4.6.8 Cockpit and Driving Integrated Domain Controller
4.6.9 Platform-Based Development Idea
4.6.10 Domain Control Software Platform: MotionWise Software Platform (1)
4.6.11 Domain Control Software Platform: MotionWise Software Platform (2)
4.6.12 Domain Control Software Platform: MotionWise Software Integrated Solution
4.6.13 Domain Control Software Platform: MotionWise Supports Hybrid Integration of Applications at Different Security Levels
4.6.14 Domain Control Software Platform: Decoupling of MotionWise Software and Hardware 
4.7 Unlimited AI
4.7.1 Profile 
4.7.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Walking On Two Legs
4.7.3 Multi-Domain Controller: Wukong II (1)
4.7.4 Multi-Domain Controller: Wukong II (2)
4.7.5 HPC Vehicle Central Computer: Wukong III
4.8 UAES
4.8.1 Profile
4.8.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: HPC + Zone
4.8.3 UAES Established the Cross-Domain Control Division 
4.8.4 Multi-Domain Integration: Vehicle Computing Platform
4.8.5 Multi-Domain Integration: Patterning with Horizon Robotics
4.8.6 Multi-Domain Integration: Patterning with Z-ONE
4.8.7 Multi-Domain Integration: Zone Controller & Software Platform
4.8.8 Scalable Domain Controller Platform
4.9 EnjoyMove Technology
4.9.1 Profile
4.9.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Software Platform EMOS (1)
4.9.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Software Platform EMOS (2)
4.10 ThunderSoft
4.10.1 Profile
4.10.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution: Plan to Mass-Produce the Cockpit-Driving Integrated Platform in 2024
4.10.3 Integrated Intelligent Parking Solution: Multi-Sensor Fusion + Cross-Domain Integration
4.10.4 Intelligent Cockpit TurboX Auto 4.5: Cockpit-Driving Integrated Computing
4.10.5 SOA Middleware Platform
4.11 Nobo Automotive Technology
4.11.1 Zone Controller: Central Electronic Module (CEM) (1)
4.11.2 Zone Controller: Central Electronic Module (CEM) (2)
4.12 Jingwei Hirain
4.12.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Solution
4.12.2 SOA Vehicle Test: Central Computing Unit + Zone Controller Solution
4.12.3 Zonal Architecture Design Optimization Tool: Introducing French RTaW-Pegase

5 Multi-Domain Computing and Zone Controller Technology Layout of Foreign Tier 1 Suppliers 
5.1 Bosch
5.1.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Established the Cross-Domain Computing Solutions Division (XC Division) 
5.1.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Cockpit and Driving Integrated Platform
5.1.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: R&D Route of Cockpit and Driving Integrated Products
5.1.4 Cockpit and Driving Integration: Intra-Domain Integrated Control System Architecture (1)
5.1.5 Cockpit and Driving Integration: Intra-Domain Integrated Control System Architecture (2)
5.1.6 Cockpit and Driving Integration: Intra-Domain Integrated Control System Architecture (3)
5.2 Continental
5.2.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Established China Software and System R&D Center 
5.2.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Four-Domain Integrated HPC 
5.2.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: 1st- and 2nd-Generation Body HPCs
5.2.4 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: SOA Software Architecture
5.2.5 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: HPC SOP Timeline
5.2.6 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Composition of HPC Platform 
5.2.7 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Revenue from HPC Business 
5.2.8 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Continental Automotive Edge (CAEdge)
5.3 ZF
5.3.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout
5.3.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: ProAI
5.3.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Vehicle Motion Domain Control Unit
5.3.4 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Middleware Platform
5.4 Aptiv
5.4.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: SVA Cross-Domain Integrated Architecture
5.4.2 Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA): Structural Features
5.4.3 Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA): Key Benefits 
5.4.4 Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA): Functional Safety Features
5.4.5 Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA): Development Planning
5.4.6 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Zone Controller PDC
5.4.7 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Central Vehicle Controller (CVC) (Body Domain + Chassis Domain Integration)
5.5 Harman
5.5.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: to Launch Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture in 2024 
5.5.2 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: Function Domain Controller + Zone Controller
5.5.3 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: System Topology
5.5.4 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Cockpit-Driving Integration
5.5.5 Cockpit-Driving Integration: Underlying Hardware Architecture
5.6 Visteon
5.6.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Zonal Architecture and Zone Controller
5.6.2 Zonal Architecture: Function Distribution of Supper Core and Zone
5.6.3 Zonal Architecture: Development Challenges
5.7 Denso
5.7.1 Multi-Domain Integration Idea (1)
5.7.2 Multi-Domain Integration Idea (2)
5.7.3 Denso Leads in the Development of Cross-Domain Integration Value

6 Multi-Domain Computing and Zone Controller Technology Layout of Chinese Automakers 
6.1 Geely 
6.1.1 Evolution from Geely GEEA 2.0 Multi-Domain Computing to GEEA 3.0 Central Computing
6.1.2 Geely Multi-Domain Computing Hardware Layout: SiEngine SE1000 Cockpit SoC and AD1000 Autonomous Driving SoC
6.1.3 Geely Multi-Domain Computing Software Layout: SOA Software Service Architecture
6.1.4 Geely Multi-Domain Computing Software Layout: Geely Galaxy OS Cross-Domain Integrated Operating System
6.1.5 ZEEKR EE 3.0 Central Computing Platform: 1 Central Computer Is Paired with 2 Zone Controllers
6.1.6 ZEEKR EE 3.0 Central Computing Platform: OTA Solution Based on SOA Software Architecture
6.2 SAIC
6.2.1 Evolution from SAIC Galaxy Full Stack Solution 1.0 Cross-Domain Integrated Platform to Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform
6.2.2 SAIC Z-ONE’s Multi-Domain Computing Software Layout: SOA Platform (1)
6.2.3 SAIC Z-ONE’s Multi-Domain Computing Software Layout: SOA Platform (2)
6.2.4 Multi-Domain Computing Architecture of SAIC IM Motors 
6.2.5 Z-ONE Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: 2 Central Computing Units + 4 Zone Controllers
6.2.6 Z-ONE Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Cockpit-Driving Integrated HPC 
6.2.7 Z-ONE Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Cockpit-Driving Integrated Software Architecture  
6.2.8 Z-ONE Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: SOA Software Ecosystem
6.2.9 Z-ONE Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: SOA Software Integrated Centralized Platform
6.2.10 Z-ONE Galaxy Full Stack Solution 3.0 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Cooperation Ecosystem
6.3 GAC
6.3.1 Protoss Architecture: 3 Computing Units + 4 Zone Controllers
6.3.2 GA3.0 "Protoss" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Architecture Features
6.3.3 GA3.0 "Protoss" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Hardware Platform (1)
6.3.4 GA3.0 "Protoss" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Hardware Platform (2)
6.3.5 GA3.0 "Protoss" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: SOA Software Platform
6.3.6 GA3.0 "Protoss" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: User Co-Created Platform
6.4 Great Wall Motor
6.4.1 Evolution to (Quasi) Central Multi-Domain Integrated Computing + Zonal Architecture
6.4.2 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central Multi-Domain Computing Layout: 3 Computing Platforms + 3 Zone Controllers
6.4.3 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Hardware Platform
6.4.4 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central Multi-Domain Computing Layout: SOA Software Framework (1)
6.4.5 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central Multi-Domain Computing Layout: SOA Software Framework (2)
6.4.6 GEEP 4.0 (Quasi) Central Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Full-Stack Security Assurance
6.4.7 GEEP 5.0 Central Computing Platform: One Brain + Zone Controllers
6.5 FAW Hongqi
6.5.1 FEEA3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Idea
6.5.2 FEEA3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Three Platforms of Intelligent Control, Intelligent Sharing, and Intelligent Driving
6.5.3 FEEA3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: TSN Ethernet Multi-Domain Controller
6.6 BYD
6.6.1 Introduction to "e3.0" Platform
6.6.2 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Idea
6.6.3 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Integrated Left and Right Body Controllers
6.6.4 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Intelligent Power Domain (1)
6.6.5 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Intelligent Power Domain (2)
6.6.6 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Intelligent Power Domain (3)
6.6.7 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Intelligent Power Domain (4)
6.6.8 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Intelligent Power Domain (5)
6.6.9 "e3.0" Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Intelligent Power Domain (6)
6.7 Changan Automobile
6.7.1 Evolution from Multi-Domain Integration to (Quasi) Central Computing Architecture
6.7.2 CIIA 2.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Vehicle Control Domain (1)
6.7.3 CIIA 2.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Vehicle Control Domain (2)
6.7.4 CIIA 2.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: SDA Software Architecture
6.8 Li Auto
6.8.1 Iteration of Multi-Domain Integrated Computing to Centralized Architecture
6.8.2 LEEA 2.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Central Domain Controller (XCU) of L9
6.8.3 LEEA 3.0 Centralized Computing Layout: CCU (3 Computing Clusters) + Zone Controller 
6.8.4 LEEA 3.0 Centralized Computing Layout: CCU Internal Functional Architecture
6.8.5 LEEA 3.0 Centralized Computing Layout: Zone Controller
6.8.6 LEEA 3.0 Centralized Computing Layout: Connecting via PCIe Switch and TSN Switch
6.8.7 LEEA 3.0 Centralized Computing Layout: Software Architecture
6.8.8 LEEA 3.0 Centralized Computing Layout: Operating System LiOS
6.9 Xpeng Motors
6.9.1 Evolution to Multi-Domain Computing + Zone Controller
6.9.2 X-EEA 3.0: Central Supercomputing (3 Computing Clusters) + Zone Controller (Z-DCU)
6.9.3 X-EEA 3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Central Supercomputing Platform Architecture
6.9.4 X-EEA 3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Central Computing Domain and Intelligent Driving Domain Software Architecture
6.9.5 X-EEA 3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Three-Layer Software Architecture
6.9.6 X-EEA 3.0 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: SOA Software Architecture
6.10 NIO
6.10.1 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: The Interconnected Central Gateway LION Integrates Body Domain
6.10.2 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Cross-Domain Integration of Intelligent Chassis Domain Controller ICC and Intelligent Driving Domain (1)
6.10.3 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: Cross-Domain Integration of Intelligent Chassis Domain Controller ICC and Intelligent Driving Domain (2)
6.11 Jidu Auto
6.11.1 Core Architecture JET: Supporting Four-Domain Integrated Computing
6.11.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Software Layout: SOA-Based "Cockpit-Driving Integration" Technology
6.11.3 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Hardware Layout: Qualcomm 8295 + NVIDIA Orin X
6.11.4 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Integration of Chassis and Intelligent Driving Domains
6.12 NETA Auto
6.12.1 Evolution to Multi-Domain Integrated Computing and Central Computing 
6.12.2 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Evolution of Intelligent Control Platform Domain 
6.13.1 Multi-Domain Integrated Computing Layout: Evolution from Power Domain and Multi-Domain Integration to Vehicle Central Computing Center

7 Multi-Domain Computing and Zone Controller Technology Layout of Foreign Automakers
7.1 Tesla
7.1.1 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Central Computing Module (CCM) + 3 Zone Controllers
7.1.2 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Communication Architecture
7.1.3 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Diagram of Zone Controller (1)
7.1.4 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Diagram of Zone Controller (2)
7.1.5 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Function Iteration of Zone Controller
7.1.6 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Zone Controller Architecture
7.1.7 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Function Assignment of Left Body Zone Controller
7.1.8 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Function Assignment of Right Body Zone Controller
7.1.9 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Function Assignment of Front Body Zone Controller
7.1.10 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: Iteration of Zone Control Board 
7.1.11 (Quasi) Central Computing Platform: SOA Software Architecture 
7.2 Volvo
7.2.1 SPA2 Architecture: 3 Computer Clusters (VCU) + Zone Controller (VIU)
7.2.2 SPA2 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: System Topology
7.2.3 SPA2 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: Function Assignment of Zone Controller (VIU) 
7.2.4 SPA2 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: System Architecture of Zone Controller (VIU) 
7.2.5 SPA2 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: Hardware Platform
7.2.6 SPA2 Multi-Domain Hybrid Architecture: SOA Software
7.3 BMW 
7.3.1 Zonal Architecture: (Quasi) Central Computing (2 Computing Groups) + Zone Controller 
7.3.2 Zonal Architecture: The Hardware Architecture Uses 2 Computing Clusters
7.3.3 Zonal Architecture: Autonomous Driving Hardware Architecture
7.3.4 Zonal Architecture: Communication Architecture and SOA Solutions
7.3.5 Zonal Architecture: Vehicle Communication Network
7.4 Toyota 
7.4.1 Zonal Architecture: Central Brain + Cross-Domain Controller
7.4.2 Zonal Architecture: Arene Operating System
7.5 Volkswagen
7.5.1 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: E3 1.1 & E3 2.0
7.5.2 Multi-Domain Computing Layout: ICAS1 Vehicle Control Domain
7.5.3 E3 2.0 Architecture: CARIAD Software Platform
7.5.4 E3 2.0 Architecture: VW.OS Vehicle Operating System
7.6 Stellantis
7.6.1 STLA Brain (Quasi) Central Computing Architecture: HPC and Zone Controller
7.6.2 STLA Brain (Quasi) Central Computing Architecture: Three Technology Platforms


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