Automotive High-precision Positioning Research Report, 2023
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High Precision Positioning Research:  four forms of mass-produced integrated high-precision positioning products

With the continuous development of autonomous driving, the demand for high-precision positioning technology is increasing. As intelligent vehicles tend to pre-embed hardware, ever more passenger cars are equipped with high-precision positioning hardware. After mass production and delivery, higher-level functions can be realized via OTA updates.

Suppliers accelerate mass production and installation of high-precision positioning products as a standard configuration of vehicles

An impressive number of models launched from 2022 are equipped with high-precision positioning technology. Among them, NIO, Xpeng, Li Auto, Hozon, Human Horizons, and BAIC ARCFOX offer high-precision positioning as a standard configuration on their new models in 2022. Conventional OEMs have also accelerated their deployment, for instance, Great Wall Tank 500, Great Wall Mecha Dragon, Changan Deep Blue SL03, SAIC Rising Auto R7, SAIC MAXUS G90, Chery JETOUR Dasheng, Cadillac LYRIQ have unveiled versions with standard high-precision positioning and those with optional high-precision positioning. According to the statistics of ResearchInChina, China mass-produced more than 280,000 passenger cars equipped with high-precision positioning from January to October 2022, with the installation rate of about 1.8%.  

Large-scale installation of high-precision positioning in vehicles, especially centimeter-level high-precision positioning that meets L4/L5 requirements, will be only achieved on the premise of higher positioning accuracy through high-precision positioning services (such as RTK/PPP-RTK) and lower costs. For high-precision positioning suppliers, independent development of core software and hardware can significantly reduce costs.

(1) Basic positioning service technology
The fusion of high-precision positioning hardware technology with RTK or PPP-RTK technology can effectively improve positioning accuracy, realize centimeter-level positioning and cater to the requirements of different levels of autonomous driving. At present, Chinese vendors such as Qianxun SI, Sixents Technology, China Mobile, and Beidou TruePoint can provide RTK or PPP-RTK positioning services to help OEMs develop autonomous driving.

Sixents Technology:  so far, it has built more than 2,800 CORS base stations in China, self-developed terminal RTK algorithms and integrated navigation algorithms. Based on the principle of virtual reference stations and precise single-point positioning technology, it has developed its own "Yunge" computing platform to calculate various spatial errors and build a "network-cloud-terminal" integrated solution through its self-developed terminal RTK algorithms and terminal integrated navigation algorithms. This solution will be able to provide all-weather, real-time centimeter-level high-precision positioning services with 5 systems and 16 frequency points. The high-precision positioning services of Sixents Technology can achieve integrity monitoring and integrity output from satellite to cloud, and to terminals.

In the past two years, Sixents Technology has secured a number of orders from WM Motor, Inceptio Technology and TuSimple in the field of intelligent driving, and has built cooperation with many upstream and downstream enterprises of Beidou, such as Dongfeng Yuexiang, Autowise, DiDi Bike, INTEST, u-blox and Kunchen.

定位1_副本.png

DAYOUPi:  in early January 2023, it officially launched the PPP-RTK global satellite positioning service. Through comprehensive processing of base station data, it establishes error models such as ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay of the entire network, and generates a set of state corrections including satellite orbit, clock difference, ionosphere, etc., and sends it to the vehicle for position calculation, with rapid convergence in less than 30 seconds and positioning accuracy of 2cm.

定位2_副本.png

PPP-RTK embodies apparent advantages in the market, and features integrity of positioning result output:  
1.Short convergence time:  atmospheric corrections and phase fractional bias products provided by ground-based reference networks are exploited to achieve fast convergence;
2.Strong privacy:  terminal location data need not to be uploaded to operator platforms;
3.Wide coverage:  mobile communication and satellite broadcasting are supported simultaneously and can complement each other to achieve global positioning;
4.Effective cost reduction:  in view of the low communication bandwidth requirements, satellite broadcasting can be used, because the amount of calculation and broadcast data hereby does not increase in a linear manner, with the hike in the number of users. In addition, the demand for base stations is relatively low, which can effectively reduce the corresponding costs;

At present, PPP-RTK technology is an effective solution to the problems about costs and positioning accuracy. It is expected to gradually become the preferred technology enabling high-precision positioning services in the intelligent driving solutions of OEMs.

(2) Positioning hardware products
As for GNSS localization, China-based BYNAV Technology, CHCNAV, Qianxun SI, and Unicore Communications have all self-developed chips or board cards.

Unicore Communications:  the Beidou high-precision positioning module UM982, launched in July 2022, is designed based on the NebulasIV chip developed by Unicore Communications independently. It enables RTK positioning and dual-antenna directional calculation. NebulasIV integrates all RF information processing, baseband signal capture and tracking, high-precision centimeter-level algorithms, anti-jamming algorithms, etc. It is a 22nm GNSS SoC combining RF baseband with high-precision algorithms.

定位3_副本.png

In terms of IMU localization, Chinese vendors such as DAISCH, Asensing and W-Ibeda have mass-produced IMU modules, while foreign vendors still dominate IMU chips.

High-precision positioning boxes (P-Box) have been mass-produced and installed in vehicles.

High-precision positioning hardware for mass-produced passenger cars mainly includes the following four integrated product forms: (1) Independent positioning boxes such as P-Box and Map-Box; (2) SMD modules that integrate high-precision positioning into T-Box or domain controllers; (3) GNSS/IMU integrated into T-Box (wireless communication module); (4) GNSS and IMU modules that are separately deployed in different positions in the vehicle.

Since P-Box can be quickly integrated into vehicles, it has become the best choice for most OEMs, especially conventional OEMs, to mass-produce and install high-precision positioning swiftly.

定位4_副本.png

STMicroelectronics:  at the electronica South China in November, 2022, ST exhibited its P-Box, which consists of ST's multi-frequency multi-constellation GNSS chip (STA9100/STA8100), positioning engine (STA1835), IMU (ASM330LHB) and power management system (LDO DC-DC L5965). It can realize lane-level positioning.

ST's P-Box complies with ASIL- B, with the GNSS chip involved conforming to ASIL-B. The positioning engine, power management system and IMU all support ASIL-B automotive applications.

定位5_副本.png

Asensing:  Focusing on the high-precision positioning industry, Asensing’s high-precision positioning solutions satisfy ISO 26262. The P-Box of Asensing integrates MEMS inertial navigation technology, RTK-GNSS and vehicle information (wheel speed, gear position, etc.), which conforms to ISO 26262 ASIL B.

Li L9, which went on the market in June 2022, and Changan Deep Blue SL03, which was unveiled in July 2022, are all equipped with Asensing’s P-Box. In addition, Asensing has been designated by Chery for its project.

The evolution of E/E architectures promotes the development of SMD positioning modules

OEMs that can develop their own algorithms have begun to explore the integration of high-precision positioning into the intelligent driving domain to reduce the use of wiring harnesses and interfaces. In order to follow the development trend for domain centralization and multi-domain fusion architectures, suppliers are aggressively deploying SMD high-precision positioning products in addition to P-Box. At present, BYNAV Technology, Aceinna, U-blox, etc. have introduced SMD high-precision positioning modules.

U-blox:  in November 2022, u-blox announced the u-blox ZED-F9K-01A, a high-precision GNSS module with embedded advanced hardware, software, and latest generation IMU to provide an advanced, self-contained positioning solution.

The u-blox ZED-F9K-01A natively supports the u-box PointPerfect GNSS augmentation service. It delivers multiple GNSS and IMU outputs in parallel to support all possible architectures, including a 50 Hz sensor-fused solution with very low latency. Operation up to 105 oC makes it possible to integrate the product anywhere in the car without design constraints.

定位6_副本.png


Automotive High-precision Positioning Industry Research Report, 2023 by ResearchInChina highlights the following: 
20120114.gifHigh-precision positioning industry policy, market size, market structure, etc.;
20120114.gifThe development, providers and products of main high-precision positioning technologies (including GNSS, IMU, GNSS+RTK+IMU, etc.);
20120114.gifDevelopment trends of of main high-precision positioning technologies, including automotive integration modes, fusion algorithms and application of PPP-RTK technology;
20120114.gifHigh-precision positioning in main application scenarios (including production passenger cars, autonomous delivery, autonomous trucks, etc.) and the size of market segments;
20120114.gifMain technologies, products, competitive advantages and cooperation of basic high-precision positioning service providers and positioning module suppliers.

1 Status Quo of High-precision Positioning Industry
1.1 Industry Policies and Standards
1.1.1 Policy Support: State 
1.1.2 Policy Support: Local 
1.1.3 High-precision Positioning Standards
1.1.4 Beijing’s Local Standard: "Technical Specifications for Feature Positioning Data of HD Maps for Autonomous Driving"
1.2 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Market Size
1.2.1 Estimated Installations of High-precision Positioning Products in Autonomous Vehicles in China, 2022
1.2.2 China's Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Module Market Size, 2022-2026E
1.2.3 China's Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Module Market Size (by Vehicle Type) Appendix-1
1.2.4 China's Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Module Market Size (by Vehicle Type) Appendix-2
1.3 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Market Pattern
1.3.1 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Supply Pattern
1.3.2 Autonomous Driving Integrated Navigation Supply Pattern 
1.3.3 Competitiveness of Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Providers
1.4 Challenges for High-precision Positioning Technology
1.4.1 High Requirements for Algorithm Robustness
1.4.2 Long System Integration Link
1.4.3 Security Assurance for Automotive Functions
 
2 High-precision Positioning Technology and Market Trends
2.1 GNSS Positioning Technology
2.1.1 GNSS is the Most Mature Absolute Positioning Solution 
2.1.2 Evolution of GNSS Positioning Technology
2.1.3 Evolution of GNSS Application in Intelligent Vehicles
2.1.4 High-precision GNSS Positioning Market Size  
2.1.5 Localization of GNSS Positioning Industry Chain  
2.1.6 Development Trends of GNSS Positioning Technology (1): A-GNSS
2.1.7 Development Trends of GNSS Positioning Technology (2): Dual-frequency GNSS and Full-frequency GNSS (1)  
2.1.8 Development Trends of GNSS Positioning Technology (2): Dual-frequency GNSS (2)
2.1.9 Development Trends of GNSS Positioning Technology (3): Time Service and Time Synchronization
2.1.10 Summary of GNSS Positioning Chips and Suppliers (1)
2.1.11 Summary of GNSS Positioning Chips and Suppliers (2)
2.1.12 Summary of GNSS Positioning Modules and Suppliers (1)
2.1.13 Summary of GNSS Positioning Modules and Suppliers (2)
2.1.14 Latest GNSS Cases: u-blox ZED-F9K-01A
2.2 IMU Positioning Technology
2.2.1 IMU is the Key to Combined Positioning system
2.2.2 IMU Positioning Architecture
2.2.3 Development Trends of IMU: Cost Reduction
2.2.4 Summary of IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (1)
2.2.5 Summary of IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (2)
2.2.6 Latest IMU Cases:  STMicroelectronics Releases First Automotive IMU with Its Machine-learning (ML) Core
2.3 GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning
2.3.1 GNSS+RTK+IMU Combined Positioning Terminal System Architecture
2.3.2 GNSS+RTK and IMU Complement Each Other 
2.3.3 Coupling Mode of GNSS+RTK+IMU Combined Positioning
2.3.4 Classification of GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning Module Suppliers
2.3.5 Summary of GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (1)
2.3.6 Summary of GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (2)
2.3.7 Summary of GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (3)
2.3.8 Summary of GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (4)
2.3.9 Summary of GNSS+RTK+IMU Positioning Modules and Suppliers (5)
2.3.10 GNSS+RTK+IMU Integrated Products: ST P-Box  
2.3.11 GNSS+RTK+IMU Integrated Products: DAISCH P-Box 
2.3.12 GNSS+RTK+IMU Integrated Products: CHCNAV P-Box
2.3.13 GNSS+RTK+IMU Integrated Products: BYNAV CHCNAV
2.3.14 GNSS+RTK+IMU Integrated Products: Aceinna SMD Solution
 
3 Development Trends of High-precision Positioning Technology
3.1 Development Trends of High-precision Positioning (1): Modularization
3.1.1 Summary of High-precision Positioning Hardware Integration Solutions (1)
3.1.2 Summary of High-precision Positioning Hardware Integration Solutions (2)
3.1.3 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (1): Independent P-BOX Module (1)
3.1.4 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (1):  Independent P-BOX Module (2)
3.1.5 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (1):  Independent P-BOX Module (3)
3.1.6 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (1):  Independent P-BOX Module (4)
3.1.7 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (1):  Independent P-BOX Module (5)
3.1.8 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (1):  Independent P-BOX Module (6)
3.1.9 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (2):  GNSS/IMU Integrated into T-Box (1)
3.1.10 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (2):  GNSS/IMU Integrated into T-Box (2)
3.1.11 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (3):  SMD Positioning Modules Integrated Domain Controllers
3.1.12 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (3):  Cases of SMD Positioning Modules Integrated Domain Controllers (1)
3.1.13 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (3):  Cases of SMD Positioning Modules Integrated Domain Controllers (2)
3.1.14 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (3):  Cases of SMD Positioning Modules Integrated Domain Controllers (3)
3.1.15 Forms of High-precision Positioning Installed on Vehicles (4):  GNSS/IMU Modules Are Separately Deployed in Different Locations 
3.1.16 Prediction for Breakdown of High-precision Positioning Installed in Vehicles by Integrated Form
3.1.17 High-precision Positioning Modularization Under New Electronic and Electrical Architectures
3.1.18 Advantages of High-precision Positioning Modularization
3.1.19 Technical Difficulties of High-precision Positioning Modularization
3.1.20 High-precision Positioning Modularization Layout of Some Vendors
3.2 Development Trends of High-precision Positioning (2): Fusion Algorithm
3.2.1 Autonomous Driving Fusion Positioning Algorithm Architecture
3.2.2 Autonomous Driving Fusion Positioning Algorithm Technology (1):  Calibration
3.2.3 Autonomous Driving Fusion Positioning Algorithm Technology (2):  Position and Situation Accuracy Calculation
3.2.4 Combined Positioning Algorithm Coupling Modes (1): Loose Coupling
3.2.5 Combined Positioning Algorithm Coupling Modes (2): Tight Coupling
3.2.6 Combination Positioning Algorithm Coupling Modes (3): Deep Coupling (1)
3.2.7 Combination Positioning Algorithm Coupling Modes (3): Deep Coupling (2)
3.2.8 Summary of Autonomous Driving Fusion Positioning Algorithms and Suppliers
3.2.9 Fusion Modes of Autonomous Driving Positioning Algorithms and Other Sensors (1): Pre-fusion
3.2.10 Fusion Modes of Autonomous Driving Positioning Algorithms and Other Sensors (2): Post-fusion
3.2.11 Fusion Modes of Autonomous Driving Positioning Algorithms and Other Sensors (3): Full Fusion
3.3 Development Trends of High-precision Positioning (3):  PPP-RTK Positioning Enhancement Services
3.3.1 Technical Advantages of PPP-RTK Positioning (1)
3.3.2 Technical Advantages of PPP-RTK Positioning (2)
3.3.3 Construction of PPP-RTK Enhancement System
3.3.4 Summary of PPP-RTK Systems and Vendors (1)
3.3.5 Summary of PPP-RTK Systems and Vendors (2)
3.3.6 PPP-RTK System Cases (1)
3.3.7 PPP-RTK System Cases (2)
3.3.8 PPP-RTK System Cases (3)
 
4 Main Application Scenarios of High-precision Positioning
4.1 Requirements of Autonomous Driving for High-precision Positioning
4.1.1 Requirements of Autonomous Driving for High-precision Positioning (1)
4.1.2 Requirements of Autonomous Driving for High-precision Positioning (2)
4.1.3 Requirements of Autonomous Driving for Satellite Positioning
4.2 Application Scenarios (1):  High-speed Autonomous Driving of Passenger Cars
4.2.1 Application Solutions of High-precision Positioning in L3 Autonomous Driving
4.2.2 Application Solutions of High-precision Positioning in L4 Autonomous Driving
4.2.3 Comparison between Main OEM High-precision Positioning Hardware Configurations (1)
4.2.4 Comparison between Main OEM High-precision Positioning Hardware Configurations (2)
4.2.5 Main High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars (1)
4.2.6 Main High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars (2)
4.2.7 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Xpeng (1)
4.2.8 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Xpeng (2)
4.2.9 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Xpeng (3)
4.2.10 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Xpeng (4)
4.2.11 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars
  Li Auto (1)
4.2.12 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Li Auto (2)
4.2.13 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Li Auto (3)
4.2.14 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  NIO (1)
4.2.15 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  NIO (2)
4.2.16 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  NIO (3)
4.2.17 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Hozon (1)
4.2.18 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Hozon (2)
4.2.19 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  BAIC ARCFOX (1)
4.2.20 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  BAIC ARCFOX (2)
4.2.21 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Human Horizons (1)
4.2.22 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Human Horizons (2)
4.2.23 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Tesla
4.2.24 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  VM Motor
4.2.25 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  GAC (1)
4.2.26 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  GAC (2)
4.2.27 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  GAC (3)
4.2.28 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  GAC (4)
4.2.29 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Great Wall Motor (1)
4.2.30 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Great Wall Motor (2)
4.2.31 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  FAW Hongqi
4.2.32 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Changan Automobile
4.2.33 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  General Motors (1)
4.2.34 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  General Motors (2)
4.2.35 OEM High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars:  Honda
4.2.36 China’s Passenger Car High-precision Positioning Market Size, 2021-2026E (1)
4.2.37 China’s Passenger Car High-precision Positioning Market Size, 2021-2026E (2)
4.3 Application Scenarios (2):  Low-speed AVP of Passenger Cars
4.3.1 High-precision Positioning Technology for AVP
4.3.2 Requirements of AVP Technology for High-precision Positioning: Vertical Positioning
4.3.3 Requirements of AVP Technology for High-precision Positioning: Mapping
4.3.4 Main Types of High-precision Positioning Technology for AVP of Passenger Cars
4.4 Application Scenarios (3):  Low-speed Autonomous Delivery
4.4.1 High-precision Positioning Solutions for Low-speed Autonomous Driving (1):   Laser SLAM
4.4.2 High-precision Positioning Solutions for Low-speed Autonomous Driving (2):   Smart Antenna
4.4.3 High-precision Positioning Solutions for Low-speed Autonomous Driving (3):   P-Box
4.4.4 Application of Some Positioning Solutions in Low-speed Autonomous Driving
4.4.5 High-precision Positioning Cases in Low-speed Autonomous Driving (1):  Meida Zhida (1)
4.4.6 High-precision Positioning Cases in Low-speed Autonomous Driving (1):  Meida Zhida (2)
4.4.7 High-precision Positioning Cases in Low-speed Autonomous Driving (2):  Qianxun SI
4.4.8 China’s Autonomous Delivery High-precision Positioning Market Size, 2021-2026E  
4.5 Application Scenarios (4):  Autonomous Trucks
4.5.1 Main High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Trucks
4.5.2 Application Cases of High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Commercial Vehicles (1)
4.5.3 Application Cases of High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Commercial Vehicles (2)
4.5.4 Application Cases of High-precision Positioning Solutions for Autonomous Commercial Vehicles (3)
4.5.5 China's Autonomous Truck High-precision Positioning Market Size, 2022-2026E (1)
4.5.6 China's Autonomous Truck High-precision Positioning Market Size, 2022-2026E (2)
 
5 Providers of Basic High-precision Positioning Services
5.1 Sixents Technology
5.1.1 Profile 
5.1.2 Development History
5.1.3 Product Lines
5.1.4 Products (1): Centimeter-level Positioning Service 
5.1.5 Products (2): Sub-meter-level Positioning Service 
5.1.6 Products (3): High-precision Positioning Engine 
5.1.7 Products (4): A-GNSS-assisted Positioning 
5.1.8 Products (5): PPK 
5.1.9 Core Competence (1): "Network-Cloud-Terminal" Integrated Solution (1) 
5.1.10 Core Competence (1): "Network-Cloud-Terminal" Integrated Solution (2) 
5.1.11 Core Competence (2): Integrity (1) 
5.1.12 Core Competence (2): Integrity (2) 
5.1.13 Core Competence (3):  Functional Safety 
5.1.14 Core Competence (4): Position Deflection Monitoring Solutions 
5.1.15 Core Competence (5): Flexible Customization Solutions 
5.1.16 High-precision Positioning Solutions (1): Autonomous Driving 
5.1.17 High-precision Positioning Solutions (2): V2X 
5.1.18 High-precision Positioning Solutions (3): Vehicle Monitoring 
5.1.19 Application in Production Vehicles (1):  Interactive Modes 
5.1.20 Application in Production Vehicles (2):  Management Modes 
5.1.21 Evolution Trends of High-precision Positioning Technology 
5.1.22 Construction of High-precision Positioning Ecosystem 
5.1.23 Key Partners in High-precision Positioning 
5.2 Trimble Navigation 
5.2.1 Main Products (1): Automotive Positioning Modules 
5.2.2 Main Products (2): Automotive High-precision Positioning Software 
5.2.3 Main Products (3): RTX Technology (1) 
5.2.4 Main Products (3): RTX Technology (2) 
5.2.5 Main Products (4): High-precision Positioning Solutions for Production Vehicles 
5.3 Qianxun SI 
5.3.1 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Layout 
5.3.2 Main Technologies: FindAUTO  
5.3.3 Main Technologies: Satellite-ground integrated SSR Service Based on PPP-RTK 
5.3.4 Main Technologies: GNSS/INS Tight Coupling Technology 
5.3.5 High-precision Positioning Solutions (1): Autonomous Driving (1) 
5.3.6 High-precision Positioning Solutions (1): Autonomous Driving (2) 
5.3.7 High-precision Positioning Solutions (2): Internet of Vehicles
5.3.8 High-precision Positioning Solutions (3):  Intelligent Cockpits
5.3.9 Advantages of High-precision Positioning Technology: Polymorphic Vehicle Architecture Adaptation
5.3.10 Technology Evolution Trends
5.4 China Mobile
5.4.1 High-precision Positioning Layout
5.4.2 High-precision Positioning Products:  OnePoint
5.4.3 High-precision Positioning Products: Cooperative Terminals
5.4.4 Combined Positioning Architecture
5.4.5 High-precision Positioning Application Solutions 
5.5 TruePoint
5.5.1 Profile
5.5.2 Main Technologies (1):  Centimeter-level Positioning Service
5.5.3 Main Technologies (2):  Decimeter-level Positioning Service
5.5.4 Main Technologies (3):  TruePoint.Edge High-precision Positioning Engine
5.6 STARCART
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 High-precision Positioning Solutions (1):  High-precision Positioning for Assisted Driving/Autonomous Driving
5.6.3 High-precision Positioning Solutions (2):  V2X-OBU High-precision Positioning
5.6.4 High-precision Positioning Solutions (3):  Special Vehicle Positioning
5.6.5 High-precision Positioning Algorithms
5.6. 6 High-precision Positioning Services:  StarLocationPlus
5.7 DAYOUPi
5.7.1 PPP-RTK Services
5.7.2 Features of PPP-RTK Services (1)
5.7.3 Features of PPP-RTK Services (2)
 
6 High-precision Positioning Module Suppliers
6.1 Novatel
6.1.1 Main Products
6.1.2 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (1)
6.1.3 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (2)
6.1.4 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (3): SPAN Inertial Navigation Level-1 System
6.1.5 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (3): SPAN Inertial Navigation Level-2/3 System
6.1.6 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (4) 
6.1.7 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (4) 
6.1.8 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (5)
6.1.9 Application Cases of Autonomous Driving Positioning Products 
6.2 Septentrio
6.2.1 Profile 
6.2.2 Main Products (1)
6.2.3 Main Products (2)
6.3 U-blox
6.3.1 Profile
6.3.2 Shipments
6.3.3 Business Line and Technology Route 
6.3.4 Main Positioning Products (1)
6.3.5 Main Positioning Products (2)
6.3.6 Main Positioning Products (3)
6.3.7 Parameters of GNSS Positioning Products  
6.3.8 Main Positioning Products (1): F9 Platform (1)
6.3.9 Main Positioning Products (1): F9 Platform (2)
6.3.10 Main Positioning Products (2): NEO-D9S Module
6.3.11 Main Positioning Products (3): Launch of a Brand-new Integrated Navigation Positioning Module
6.3.12 Main Positioning Products (4): GNSS Integrated Platform
6.3.13 Main Positioning Products (5): Global GNSS Correction Services
6.3.14 Main Positioning Products (6): PointPerfect (1)
6.3.15 Main Positioning Products (6): PointPerfect (2)
6.3.16 Main Positioning Products (6): PointPerfect (3)
6.3.17 Product Application: Automobiles 
6.4. ADI
6.4.1 Profile
6.4.2 Inertial Navigation Products: ADIS16490
6.5 InvenSense
6.5.1 Profile
6.5.2 Main Products (1): IMU Sensors
6.5.3 Main Products (2): High-performance Gyroscopes
6.5.4 Main Products (3): Coursa Drive
6.6 Aceinna
6.6.1 High-precision Positioning Product Line
6.6.2 Trends of IMU Products
6.6.3 Combined Navigation Positioning Products
6.7 Bosch
6.7.1 High-precision Positioning Solutions
6.7.2 High-precision Positioning Products (1): Satellite Positioning Intelligent Sensors
6.7.3 High-precision Positioning Products (2): Inertial Navigation Sensors (1)
6.7.4 High-precision Positioning Products (2): Inertial Navigation Sensors (2)
6.8 STMicroelectronics
6.8.1 High-precision Positioning Products (1): GNSS Chips (1)
6.8.2 High-precision Positioning Products (1): GNSS Chips (2)
6.8.3 High-precision Positioning Products (2): Modules
6.8. 4 High-precision Positioning Products (3): Inertial Sensors
6.8.5 High-precision Positioning Products (4): Advantages of P-Box Solutions
6.8.6 High-precision Positioning Products (4): Architecture of P-Box
6.8.7 High-precision Positioning Products (4): Functional Safety of P-Box
6.8.8 High-precision Positioning Products (4): Performance Test of P-Box Platform
6.8.9 High-precision Positioning Products (4): P-Box Evaluation System
6.9 DAISCH
6.9.1 Profile
6.9.2 Product Lines
6.9.3 High-precision Positioning Products (1):  IMU
6.9.4 High-precision Positioning Products (2):  Motion Sensors
6.9. 5 High-precision Positioning Products (3): Satellite-inertial Integrated Navigation System (1)
6.9. 6 High-precision Positioning Products (3):  Satellite-inertial Integrated Navigation System (2)
6.9.7 High-precision Positioning Products (4):  P-Box (1)
6.9.8 High-precision Positioning Products (4):  P-Box (2)
6.9.9 High-precision Positioning Products (4):  P-Box (3)
6.9.10 High-precision Positioning Products (5):  ADAS test suite
6.9.11 Application of High-precision Positioning Products (1):  Autonomous Delivery
6.9.12 Application of High-precision Positioning Products (2):  Autonomous Trucks in Mines
6.10 Asensing
6.10.1 Main Business
6.10.2 Main High-precision Positioning Products
6.10.3 Automotive-grade Combined Navigation Positioning Product:  INS570D
6.10.4 Map Positioning Box
6.11 CHCNAV
6.11.1 Profile
6.11.2 Main Autonomous Driving Positioning Products
6.11.3 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (1):  GNSS Receivers
6.11.4 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (2):  P Series High-precision Positioning System (1)
6.11.5 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (2):  P Series High-precision Positioning System (2)
6.11.6 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (3):  CGI Series Satellite-inertial Integrated Navigation (1)
6.11.7 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products (3):  CGI Series Satellite-inertial Integrated Navigation (2)
6.11.8 Application of High-precision Positioning Products (1):  Passenger Cars
6.11.9 Application of High-precision Positioning Products (2):  Autonomous Agricultural Machinery
6.12 BYNAV Technology
6.12.1 Profile
6.12.2 Positioning Chip:  GNSS High-precision Baseband Chip - Alita
6.12.3 Automotive-grade Combined Navigation Products
6.12.4 Combined Navigation Products (1):  High-precision Positioning Directional Board C1
6.12.5 Combined Navigation Products (2):  High-precision Combined Navigation Board A1
6.12.6 Combined Navigation Products (3):  High-precision Combined Navigation Module M1
6.12.7 Combined Navigation Products (4):  High-precision Combined Navigation System X1
6.12.8 Combined Navigation Products (5):  High-precision Combined Navigation System X2
6.12.9 Installation Methods of High-precision Positioning Products:  X1
6.12.10 Evolution Trends of High-precision Positioning Technology
6.12.11 Application of High-precision Positioning Technology
6.13 Hi Target
6.13.1 Profile
6.13.2 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Technology Layout
6.13.3 High-precision Positioning Products (1):  High-precision Antennas
6.13.4 High-precision Positioning Products (2):  Positioning Directional Boards
6.13. 5 High-precision Positioning Products (3): Combined Navigation Positioning Products
6.13.6 High-precision Positioning Technology
  Hi-RTP Global Positioning Service (1)
6.13.7 High-precision Positioning Technology
  Hi-RTP Global Positioning Service (2)
6.13.8 Application of High-precision Positioning Technology:  Passenger Cars (1)
6.13.9 Application of High-precision Positioning Technology:  Passenger Cars (2)
6.14 Allystar
6.14.1 Profile
6.14.2 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (1):  GNSS Chips
6.14.3 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2):  High-precision Positioning Terminals
6.15 ComNav Technology
6.15.1 Profile
6.15.2 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (1):  GNSS Chips
6.15.3 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2):  GNSS Modules
6.15.4 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (3):  GNSS Navigation Kit
6.15.5 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (4):  Combined Navigation
6.15.6 Application of High-precision Positioning Technology (1):  Passenger Cars
6.15.7 Application of High-precision Positioning Technology (2):  Commercial Vehicles
6.15.8 Application of High-precision Positioning Technology (3):  Autonomous Agricultural Machinery
6.16 Broadgnss
6.16.1 RAC Positioning Technology
6.16.2 Autonomous Driving Positioning Products
6.16.3 Application of Autonomous Driving Positioning Products: JD.com
6.17 BDStar Navigation
6.17.1 High-precision Positioning Business Layout
6.17.2 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (1): Combined Navigation NPOS122
6.17.3 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2): Combined Navigation MS-6110
6.17.4 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (3): Combined Navigation NPOS222
6.17.5 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (4): Combined Navigation Npos220
6.18 Qianxun SI
6.18.1 High-precision Positioning Hardware: Modules (1)
6.18.2 High-precision Positioning Hardware: Modules (2)
6.18.3 High-precision Positioning Hardware Modules (3)
6.18.4 Advantages of Positioning Modules (1): Self-developed Automotive-grade Chips
6.18.5 Advantages of Positioning Modules (2): Built-in RTK Algorithms
6.18.6 Advantages of Positioning Modules (3): Built-in AGNSS Services
6.19 Unicore Communications
6.19.1 Profile
6.19.2 Global Layout
6.19.3 High-precision Positioning Business
6.19.4 Evolution Trends of High-precision Positioning Technology
6.19.5 Main High-precision Positioning Products (1)
6.19.6 Main High-precision Positioning Products (2)
6.19.7 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (1): GNSS Chips
6.19.8 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2): Positioning Modules (1)
6.19.9 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2): Positioning Modules (2)
6.19.10 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2): Positioning Modules (3)
6.19.11 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products (2): Positioning Modules (4)
6.19.12 Application of Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Products
6.20 Baidu
6.20.1 Combined Positioning Technology Solutions
6.20.2 Combined Positioning Technology Solutions (1): Combined Differential Positioning
6.20.3 Combined Positioning Technology Solutions (2): Multi-sensor Fusion Positioning
6.20.4 Combined Positioning Technology Engines
6.20.5 Combined Positioning Algorithms (1): Point Cloud Positioning Algorithms
6.20.6 Combined Positioning Algorithms (2): Inertial Navigation Solutions
6.20.7 Evolution of Apollo High-precision Positioning Technology
6.21 Joynext
6.21.1 Combined Positioning Solutions (1): T-Box
6.21.2 Combined Positioning Solutions (2): Smart Antennas
6.22 Quectel
6.22.1 Profile
6.22.2 Main Automotive-grade Products
6.22.3 Automotive-grade Positioning Modules: LG69T
6.22.4 Automotive-grade Communication Modules with Integrated Positioning Technology:  AG550Q
6.23 W-Ibeda
6.23.1 High-precision Positioning Projects Designated by Automakers
6.23.2 Inertial Navigation Products (1)
6.23.3 Inertial Navigation Products (2)
6.24 Jingwei Hirain
6.24.1 High-precision Positioning Module: LMU
6.24.2 Application of LMU
6.25 juefx.com
6.25.1 High-precision Positioning Services: Extrasensory Perception
6.25.2 Visual Feature Fusion Positioning Solutions
6.26 Others
6.26.1 Combined Positioning Products of StarNeto
6.26.2 Inertial Navigation Products of XILLIX
6.26.3 UNISOC’s Automotive-grade High-precision Dual-frequency Positioning Chip: A2395 
 

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