China Charging / Battery Swapping Infrastructure Market Research Report, 2022
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Research of charging / battery swapping: More than 20 OEMs layout charging business, new charging station construction accelerated

From January to September 2022, the sales volume of new energy vehicles in China was 4.567 million, with a market share of 23.5%, Thus ownership of new energy vehicles in China has exceeded 10 million units. In terms of charging infrastructure, according to statistics of Charging Alliance, as of September 2022, the ownership of charging infrastructure in China was 4.488 million sets, with a year-on-year increase of 101.9%; Based on this calculation, the overall car-to-pile ratio is close to 2.2:1, which has basically reached the national expected development goals.

In January 2022, National Development and Reform Commission and other 10 departments jointly issued "Fourteenth Five Year Plan" for Public Service, which specifies that by 2025, China will form a charging infrastructure system to meet the needs of more than 20 million electric vehicles. According to the 14th Five Year Development Plan of the State Council, by 2025, the car-to-pile ratio will increase to 2:1, which is equivalent to two cars equipped with one charging pile.

 Market and technology trend of charging/ battery swapping infrastructure

In 2022, China's charging/battery swapping infrastructure industry ushers in further development and expansion, and the market pattern of 7-11kW AC charging piles is basically stable; The leading enterprise in 80-240kW DC charging pile market has begun to take shape. At the same time, new charging technologies/stations are developing rapidly, including high-voltage fast charging, battery swapping, orderly charging, PV-storage-charging integration, hydrogen-PV-storage-charging integration, mobile charging robot, etc.

Trend 1: High-voltage fast charging

In terms of charging power, there are two main solutions to improve fast charging power: high-voltage fast charging and high-current fast charging. Judging from the current development, high-voltage fast charging is popular, mainly because high-current fast charging has a huge challenge to thermal management system, and there is a ceiling for single vehicle charging power, which cannot reach 480KW charging efficiency.

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At present, high-voltage fast charging has become the most popular choice in the industry. In 2019, Porsche Taycan launched the first 800V high-voltage electrical architecture in the world, equipped with an 800V DC fast charging system and supporting 350kW high-power fast charging; In 2022, XPeng Motor launched its G9 model based on 800V SiC platform in mass production, while Geely and Mercedes Benz launched the SEA architecture and MMA architecture supporting 800V.

At the same time, OEMs, charging operators and energy enterprises have laid out high-voltage fast charging stations successively. GAC Aion, XPeng, AVATR, ZEEKR, NIO and Tesla all have layout plans for high-voltage fast charging stations. The maximum current of a single XPeng S4 ultrafast charging pile is 670A, and the peak charging power is 400kW; GAC Aion super-charging station (A480 super-charging pile) has a peak power of 1000V, a current of 600A and a liquid cooled charging system; In 2020, the State Grid began to invite bids for 480KW high-voltage fast charging piles, presenting a trend of continuous growth.

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Trend 2: Battery swapping

The battery swapping mode is a fast power supplement mode for new energy vehicles. The battery is stored and charged through a centralized battery swapping station, and then the battery swapping service is provided for the car owners to achieve the same speed of battery supplement and refueling. According to the statistics of Charging Alliance, as of September 2022, China has 1762 battery swapping stations (excluding heavy truck battery swapping). In terms of provinces and cities, the top ten charging stations are Beijing, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei, Hubei and Jilin, and top three provinces account for 39.9% of the total.

According to the different battery installation position, size and endurance mileage, the battery swapping methods are divided into passenger car and commercial vehicle, in which passenger car battery swapping is divided into module-in-box and integrated chassis; the commercial vehicle battery swapping can be divided into top-hanging type, overall one-sided type and overall two-sided type.

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In the passenger car market, the main battery swapping operators in China at present include NIO, Aulton New Energy, Blue Park Smart Energy, First Technology, etc., of which NIO and Aulton New Energy are far ahead in the number of covered battery swapping stations.

The promotion and application of battery swapping mode need not only technical support of enterprises, but also cooperation of national standards, battery standards, vehicle manufacturers and energy enterprises. The "national team" in the field of battery swapping was established in 2022. On September 22, 2022, Shanghai Jieneng Intelligent Power New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. jointly invested by Sinopec, CNPC, SAIC, CATL and Shanghai International Automobile City Group was officially established, The registered capital is RMB 4 billion, and the business scope covers power battery leasing, energy supplement technology R&D and promotion, battery operation management, big data services, etc.

With establishment of "National Team" for battery swapping, 2022 will become the first year of China's battery swapping mode development. In the future, improvement of standardization of battery swapping vehicle model, BaaS mode and cascade utilization of batteries will become three major development trends of battery swapping technology.

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Trend 3: PV-storage-charging integrated smart energy station

PV-storage-charging integrated smart energy station takes the electric vehicle charging station as carrier, based on the design concept of energy Internet, integrates photovoltaic, energy storage and other distributed energy systems, realizes the coordinated operation of energy, gird, load and storage, and on this basis, carries out practical demonstration of multiple commercial operation modes of electric vehicle charging and discharging facilities.

At present, the PV-storage-charging integrated station market has accommodated vehicle companies, battery companies, charging operators, energy companies and others, mainly through cooperative construction and operation of various enterprises, and most of them are demonstration stations and new energy practice stations.

China has small proportion of PV-storage-charging integrated stations, and the large-scale promotion is late, mainly because the construction of PV-storage-charging integrated stations needs large investment, and many enterprises are still waiting for the policy trend; as well as low technology maturity. With the launch of super-charged vehicles by OEMs, the cost efficiency improvement of energy storage batteries and the support of national policies, 2025 will be the first year of PV-storage-charging industry development.

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OEMs' high-voltage fast charging/battery swapping technology architecture and trend

Taking NIO as an example, NIO has already layout in battery swapping station and ultrafast charging: the second generation of NIO battery swapping station has been put into use, introducing the BaaS mode. NIO also leads the establishment of Wuhan Weineng Battery Assets Co., Ltd. which is responsible for battery management and operation. According to the plan, the third generation battery swapping station and 500kW ultrafast charging station will be released at the end of 2022.

NIO automotive super-charge network: 500kW ultrafast charging is expected to achieve a peak current of 650A, and adopts liquid-cooling gun line design. In addition, NIO also announced 800V high-voltage platform battery pack and supporting battery swapping system, and which will be open to the whole industry in the future.

NIO battery swapping station: the second generation of NIO battery swapping station is the first in the world to realize autonomous parking in mass production. It is a software-defined and end-cloud combined intelligent battery swapping system. A total of 239 sensors and 4 cloud systems are arranged in the second generation battery swapping station to work together, comprehensively deepening the application of visual recognition technology. With the help of science and technology, users can start self-service battery swapping with one button in the car without getting off.

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1. Policies/Standards Related to Charging/Battery Swapping Facilities
1.1 Subsidy Policies for China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
1.1.1 National Level
1.1.2 Provincial /Municipal level
1.2 Promotion Policy of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Planning 
1.2.1 Overall Roadmap of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure, 2025-2035
1.2.2 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Planning Policies-National Level
1.2.4 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Planning Policies- Provincial /Municipal level
1.3 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Standards/Regulations
1.3.1 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure-Relative Standards (1)
1.3.2 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure-Relative Standards (2)
1.3.3 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure-Relative Standards (3)
1.4 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Policy- Battery Swapping
1.4.1 Battery Swapping-related Polices
1.4.2 Application Policy of China Battery Swapping Mode
1.4.3 Standard Document of Battery Swapping Mode
1.5 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Policy-High-power Charging
1.5.1 Policies Related to High-power Charging
1.6 Other Policies
1.6.1 China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure -V2G-related Policies 
1.6.2 Promotion of V2G Coordinative Innovation and Demonstration
1.6.3 National Development and Reform Commission: Further Improve the Time-of-Day Tariff

2. Development Status of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure Market
2.1 Analysis of Passenger Car Market in China
2.1.1 Ownership of New Energy Vehicles in China
2.1.2 China's New Energy Vehicle Sales Account for 20%+ of the Total Vehicle Sales
2.1.3 Sales Volume of New Energy Passenger Cars in China
2.1.4 Sales Volume of New Energy Passenger Cars in China (by Brand)
2.1.5 Sales Volume of New Energy Passenger Cars in China (by Model)
2.1.6 Sales Volume of New Energy Buses in China 
2.1.7 Sales Volume of New Energy Special Vehicles in China 
2.2 Analysis of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
2.2.1 Ownership of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure 
2.2.2 Ownership of Public Charging Pile in China 
2.2.3 Distribution of Public Charging Station/Pile in China (by Province)
2.2.4 Charging Capacity Distribution of Public Charging Station/Pile in China (by Province) 
2.2.5 Ownership of Private Charging Pile in China
2.3 Competition Pattern of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
2.3.1 Operation Analysis of China Public Charging Pile (Including Shared Private Piles)
2.3.2 Operation Analysis of China Public Charging Pile (Public/Private)
2.3.3 Operation Analysis of China Public Charging Pile (AC/DC)
2.3.4 Competition Pattern of Major Charging Operators in China (1)
2.3.5 Competition Pattern of Major Charging Operators in China (2)
2.3.6 Business Models and Charging Standards of 12 Major Charging Operators in China (1)
2.3.7 Business Models and Charging Standards of 12 Major Charging Operators in China (2)
2.3.8 Financing of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
2.4 Development Trend Forecast of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
2.4.1 Ownership and Car-to-Pile Ratio of Charging Station in China
2.4.2 Ownership and Charging Operation Demand of New Energy Vehicles in China
2.5 Chinese Charging/ Battery Swapping Equipment Enterprises Go Abroad
2.5.1 Insufficient Development of Charging Piles in Europe and America
2.5.2 Charging Infrastructure Policies in Europe and America
2.5.3 Development Progress of Abroad Chinese Charging/ Battery Swapping Equipment Enterprises 

3. Analysis of Application Scenarios and Modes of China Charging/ Battery Swapping Technology
3.1 Highway Charging Stations
3.1.1 “Action Plan for Accelerating Construction of Charging Infrastructure along the Highway”
3.1.2 Highway Charging Stations - Configuration Standard
3.1.3 Highway Charging Stations - Charging Mode
3.1.4 Highway Charging Stations - Charging Fee
3.1.5 Ownership of Highway Charging Stations in China 
3.1.6 Regional Distribution of Highway Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure 
3.1.7 Construction Network of Highway Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
3.1.8 Operation Modes of Highway Charging/ Battery Swapping Infrastructure
3.1.9 China Highway Charging Pile Operation Solutions (1) 
3.1.10 China Highway Charging Pile Operation Solutions (2)
3.2 Battery Swapping Modes
3.2.1 Battery Swapping Modes - Introduction and Classification
3.2.2 Comparison between Battery Swapping Mode and Charging Mode and Its Development Trend 
3.2.3 Development Environment of BaaS + Battery Swapping Network
3.2.4 Promotion Value of Battery Swapping Mode
3.2.5 Business Mode of Battery Swapping
3.2.6 Major Battery Swapping Technologies and Development Trends of Passenger Car 
3.2.7 Construction Status of Swapping Stations 
3.2.8 Analysis of Enterprise Types in China Battery Swapping Industry
3.2.9 Battery Swapping Operators 
3.2.10 Battery Swapping Strategic Plan of Major Automakers (1) 
3.2.11 Battery Swapping Strategic Plan of Major Automakers (2)
3.2.12 Battery Swapping Strategic Plan of Major Automakers (3)
3.2.13 Development Advantages of Battery Swapping Heavy Trucks 
3.2.14 Cases of Swapping Stations for Heavy Truck (1) 
3.2.15 Cases of Swapping Stations for Heavy Truck (2)
3.2.16 Comparison of Battery Swapping Technology and DC Fast Charging Technology
3.2.17 Battery Swapping Mode Will Coexist with Charging Mode in China, and the Application Scenario of Operating Vehicles Is Promising
3.3 High-voltage Fast Charging
3.3.1 Status Quo and Development Direction of High-voltage Fast Charging
3.3.2 800V High-voltage Fast Charging Becomes Technical Competition Field of Auto Companies
3.3.3 800V High-voltage Fast Charging System Architecture Solution
3.3.4 Classification of 800V High-voltage Fast Charging System Operation 
3.3.5 800V High-voltage Fast Charging Architecture –Vehicle
3.3.6 Automakers Successively Layout 800V High-voltage Charging Field
3.3.7 800V High-voltage Architecture Vehicle Models (1)
3.3.8 800V High-voltage Architecture Vehicle Models (2)
3.3.9 800V High-voltage Fast Charging Architecture –Battery
3.3.10 Super Fast Charging- Development of Power Battery (1)
3.3.11 Super Fast Charging- Development of Power Battery (2)
3.3.12 CATL-CTP3.0 Qilin Battery (1) 
3.3.13 CATL-CTP3.0 Qilin Battery (2)
3.3.14 800V High-voltage Fast Charging Architecture-Pile
3.3.15 Construction of 480KW Fast Charging Station (1)
3.3.16 Construction of 480KW Fast Charging Station (2)
3.3.17 Construction of 480KW Fast Charging Station (3)
3.3.18 XPeng G9-800V Fast Charging (1)
3.3.19 XPeng G9-800V Fast Charging (2)
3.3.20 GAC AION V Plus 70 Super Fast Charging -800V Fast Charging (1)
3.3.21 GAC AION V Plus 70 Super Fast Charging -800V Fast Charging (2)
3.3.22 AVATR 11-800V Fast Charging
3.3.23 Vehicle-end Suppliers of 800V High-voltage Platform
3.3.24 Mercedes-Benz 900V High-voltage Platform
3.3.25 Difficulties of 800V High-voltage Platform Development
3.4 PV-Storage-Charging Integrated Station 
3.4.1 Solutions
3.4.2 Solution Advantages
3.4.3 Cases Analysis (1)
3.4.4 Cases Analysis (2)
3.5 Wireless Charging
3.5.1 Principle
3.5.2 Standards
3.5.3 Technical Route
3.5.4 Technical Parameters of 11 Enterprises in the World
3.5.5 Dynamics: Wireless Charging Road Construction
3.5.6 Solution: Qualcomm Halo
3.5.7 Introduction to Major Technologies in the World (1)
3.5.8 Introduction to Major Technologies in the World (2)
3.5.9 Introduction to Major Technologies in the World (3)
3.5 G2V/V2G/V2H
3.5.1 Technology Principle
3.5.2 V2X Charging and Discharging Technologies
3.5.3 V2G Technology
3.5.4 V2G Technical Framework
3.5.5 Vehicle Network Coordination Change the Energy Loss and Peak Load of Disordered Charging
3.5.6 Large Scale Commercialization of V2G Still Needs Time
3.5.7 Application Cases of V2G Charging Station

4. Charging/Battery Swapping Equipment and Charging Operators in China 
4.1 TELD
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Development History and Financing 
4.1.3 Charging Network Solution (1)
4.1.4 Charging Network Solution (2)
4.1.5 Charging Network Solution (3)
4.1.6 Charging Equipment
4.1.7 Intelligent Flexible Charging Bow
4.1.8 Novel High-power Charging Equipment (1)
4.1.9 Novel High-power Charging Equipment (2)
4.1.10 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (1)
4.1.11 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (2)
4.1.12 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (3)
4.1.13 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (4)
4.1.14 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (5)
4.1.15 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (6)
4.1.16 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data (7)
4.1.17 Charging Business Operation Mode
4.1.18 Charging Business Scope
4.1.19 Partners in Charging Business
4.2 Star Charge
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 Development History and Financing
4.2.3 Charging Solution
4.2.4 Charging Business Operation
4.2.5 Charging Solution
4.2.6 DC Integrated Charging Pile (1)
4.2.7 DC Integrated Charging Pile (2)
4.2.8 DC Split Charger
4.2.9 AC Product Line
4.2.10 Product Line for Charging Facilities Abroad
4.2.11 Product Line for Control Parts
4.2.12 Application Cases
4.2.13 Partners in Charging Business
4.3 State Grid
4.3.1 Charging Facility Construction
4.3.2 Charging Facility Operation
4.3.3 Charging Facility Tender (1)
4.3.4 Charging Facility Tender (2)
4.3.5 Charging Facility Tender (3)
4.4 Ykccn.com
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Charging Service
4.4.3 SaaS Platform
4.4.4 Charging Facility Operation
4.4.5 Charging Facility Distribution
4.4.6 Partners in Charging Facility
4.5 Xiaoju Keji
4.5.1 Profile
4.5.2 Public Charging Station Solution
4.5.3 SaaS Platform
4.5.4 Charging Process
4.5.5 Operation Cases
4.6 Sinexcel
4.6.1 Profile
4.6.2 Classification of Charging Equipment Products
4.6.3 Sinexcel V6 Commercial DC Charging Series
4.6.4 DC Charging Equipment (1)
4.6.5 DC Charging Equipment (2)
4.6.6 DC Charging Equipment (3)
4.6.7 AC Charging Equipment Products
4.6.8 Battery Scenario Solution 
4.6.9 Development Plan of Charging Equipment Field
4.7 First Technology
4.7.1 Profile
4.7.2 Battery Swapping Service (1) 
4.7.3 Battery Swapping Service (2)
4.7.4 Cloud Data Center 
4.7.5 Cooperative Cities/Enterprises
4.8 Aulton New Energy
4.8.1 Profile
4.8.2 Battery Swapping Technology Reserve
4.8.3 Core Technology of Battery Swapping Station 
4.8.4 Business Mode of Battery Swapping
4.8.5 Layout of Swapping Stations 
4.8.6 Battery Life Cycle Management of Battery Swapping Mode 
4.8.7 Cooperation With Auto Companies
4.9 CIRCUE
4.9.1 Profile
4.9.2 Business
4.9.3 Smart Safe Charging Solution 
4.9.4 PV-Storage-Charging Smart Micro-grid Integrated Solution (1)
4.9.5 PV-Storage-Charging Smart Micro-grid Integrated Solution (2)
4.9.6 Safe O&M SaaS Solution
4.9.7 Battery Testing and Recycling Solution
4.9.8 Partners
4.10 XCHARGE
4.10.1 Profile
4.10.2 XCHARGE SaaS Cloud Platform V3.0
4.10.3 C9 Pro Spilt Super Charging Pile 
4.10.4 C9 Mini Spilt Super Charging Pile
4.10.5 C6 Max Smart DC Charging Pile
4.10.6 C6 Smart DC Charging Pile
4.10.7 C2 Smart AC Charging Pile
4.10.8 Partners
4.10.9 Global Layout

5. Charging Business Layout of OEMs 
5.1 NIO
5.1.1 Layout of Charging/Battery Swapping Infrastructure 
5.1.2 NIO Power (1)
5.1.3 NIO Power (2)
5.1.4 Operation of Swapping Station 
5.1.5 The First/Second Generation Swapping Station 
5.1.6 RGV Patent Battery Swapping Platform
5.1.7 Technical Analysis of Battery Swapping Station (1)
5.1.8 Technical Analysis of Battery Swapping Station (2)
5.1.9 Highway Battery Swapping Network
5.1.10 Super Charging Station
5.1.11 Super Charging Network
5.1.12 Charging Vehicles
5.1.13 Household Charging Pile
5.1.14 R&D / Production Base 
5.1.15 Cooperation in Charging Facilities
5.2 XPeng Motor
5.2.1 Layout of Charging/Battery Swapping Infrastructure
5.2.2 Operation of Charging Network 
5.2.3 S4 Super Fast Charging Station
5.2.4 800V Super Fast Charging Platform
5.2.5 Self-operated Charging Station
5.2.6 Usage Process of Charging Facilities
5.2.7 Household Charging Pile Service Solution
5.2.8 Cooperation in Charging Facilities
5.3 Li Auto
5.3.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.3.2 Super High-voltage Pure Electric Platform
5.3.3 Public Charging Network
5.3.4 Household Charging Pile
5.4 Tesla
5.4.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.4.2 Construction of Super Charging Station
5.4.3 Super Charging Pile Equipments 
5.4.4 800V High-voltage Architecture
5.4.5 PV-Storage-Charging Integrated Super Charging Station 
5.4.6 Mobile Charging and Automatic Charging Services
5.4.7 Household Charging Pile Service Solutions
5.5 BYD/ DENZA
5.5.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.5.2 800V High-voltage Flash Charging Technology 
5.5.3 Public Charging Service 
5.5.4 Private Charging Service 
5.5.5 Mobile Charging Service 
5.5.6 DENZA D9 Dual-charging Technology 
5.5.7 Blade Battery CTB Structure
5.6 SAIC
5.6.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.6.2 Battery Swapping Ecosystem of Rising Auto
5.6.3 BaaS Service of Rising Auto
5.6.4 Battery Swapping/ Energy Supplement Solution of Rising Auto
5.6.5 Public Charging Network 
5.6.6 Household Charging Piles 
5.6.7 ONE PACK
5.7 Wuling
5.7.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.7.2 Charging Facility: Liuzhou Model
5.7.3 Charging Mode Analysis
5.7.4 Cooperation in Charging Facilities
5.8 Changan Automobile
5.8.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.8.2 Battery Swapping Station
5.8.3 Household Charging Pile
5.8.4 Cooperation in Charging Facilities
5.9 AVATR
5.9.1 High-voltage Fast Charging Station 
5.9.2 Public Charging Network 
5.10 BAIC BJEV
5.10.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.10.2 Layout of Battery Swapping Station
5.10.3 Construction of ARCFOX Super Charging Station
5.10.4 Private Charging Services
5.11 Aiways Auto
5.11.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.11.2 Battery Swapping Network 
5.11.3 “PV-Storage-Charging-Testing” Super Charging Station
5.11.4 Mobile Charging System
5.12 GAC Aion
5.12.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.12.2 Super Charging/Battery Swapping Center
5.12.3 Super Charging Station (1)
5.12.4 Super Charging Station (2)
5.12.5 GAC Magazine Battery
5.13 Geely
5.13.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.13.2 Construction of Battery Swapping Station
5.13.3 ZEEKR Super Charging Station
5.13.4 Automatic Charging Services
5.14 IM Motors
5.14.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.14.2 Wireless Charging
5.14.3 Public Charging Network 
5.14.4 Household Charging Piles (1) 
5.14.5 Household Charging Piles (2)
5.15 Voyah
5.15.1 Fast Charging Technology
5.15.2 Amber and Mica Batteries
5.16 Leap Motor
5.16.1 800V Fast Charging
5.17 Neta
5.17.1 Public Charging Network 
5.17.2 Household Charging Piles
5.17.3 Tiangong Battery
5.18 Lotus
5.18.1Super Charging Network 
5.18.2 Public Charging Network 
5.18.3 Household Charging Piles 
5.19 Volvo
5.19.1 Two-way Charging Function
5.19.2 Wireless Charging
5.20 Volkswagen
5.20.1 Development of Charging Facilities
5.20.2 NEW AUTO Strategy
5.20.3 Global Layout of Charging Facilities
5.20.4 Layout of Charging Facilities in China
5.20.5 Household Charging Piles
5.20.6 Robot Automatic Charging Solution 
5.21 BMW
5.21.1 Cooperation in Charging Facilities
5.22 Charging Pile Construction of Major OEMs
5.22.1 Charging Pile Layout of Major OEMs
5.22.2 Super Charging Station Construction of Major OEMs
5.22.3 Battery Swapping Services of Major OEMs
5.22.4 Mobile Charging Services of Major OEMs
5.22.5 Automatic Charging Services of Major OEMs
5.22.6 Cost Comparison of Household Basic Charging Facilities of Major Automakers
5.22.7 Installation Comparison of Household Basic Charging Facilities of Major Automakers 
 

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