Leading Foreign OEMs’ADAS and Autonomous Driving Report, 2023
  • Sept.2023
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Global automakers evolve to software-defined vehicles by upgrading EEAs.

Centralized electronic/electrical architectures (EEA) act as the hardware foundation to realize software-defined vehicles. At present, leading foreign OEMs are aggressively deploying centralized EEA.
For example, Mercedes-Benz's newly developed electronic architecture uses a central processor (254TOPS) to replace the previous independent computing controllers, making data calculation and transmission faster and more stable. It will be installed in Mercedes-Benz E-Class, a model expected to be marketed in China in November 2023. 

Hyundai Motor is developing domain centralized EEA to manage ever more electrical components by system efficiency. The domain centralized architecture divides main vehicle functions into four domains: comfort, driving, infotainment and ADAS, so as to ensure vehicles improve efficiency via OTA updates. Hyundai Motor Group plans to apply the domain centralized architecture to all its models worldwide by 2025.

Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance is also developing a common centralized electronic and electrical architecture converging electronics hardware and software applications. By 2026, the next generation of models under the alliance will use this architecture. The alliance will also launch its first software-defined vehicle by 2025 to improve the full life cycle OTA performance of vehicles. 

国外OEM adas 1_副本.png

Leading foreign OEMs build core software capabilities by strengthening their software talent deployment.

For the transition to software-defined vehicles, leading foreign OEMs have increased their investment in software and algorithm talents. In February 2023, Cariad, the software division of Volkswagen, announced that it would recruit more than 1,700 employees. Volkswagen itself and its subsidiary premium car brand Audi need 700 and 400 IT specialists respectively. In May 2023, Toyota announced that it would train 9,000 employees in-house by 2025, hoping to turn them into software developers. In May 2023, Nissan strengthened cooperation with KPIT Technologies, an Indian R&D company. Based on this partnership, KPIT Technologies plans to increase the number of its vehicle system software development experts working for Honda from 1,100 to a level close to 2,000 by 2030.

国外OEM adas 2_副本.png

At the same time, leading foreign OEMs are exploring AI technology, especially the application of generative AI in autonomous driving and cockpits, for movement towards intelligence.

In September 2023, Amazon Web Services (‘’AWS’’) announced the BMW Group had chosen AWS as the preferred cloud provider for its automated driving platform. The BMW Group will develop its next-generation advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) using AWS to help innovate new features for its next generation of vehicles, the “Neue Klasse,” set to launch in 2025. The new cloud-based system will leverage BMW's pre-existing Cloud Data Hub on AWS, and will use AWS compute, generative artificial intelligence (generative AI), Internet of Things (IoT), machine learning, and storage capabilities to help accelerate the delivery of highly automated BMW vehicles.

Tesla is also exploring the application of generative AI technology. In April 2023, Tesla registered a new artificial intelligence startup named X.AI Corp, in Nevada. The company plans to launch a generative AI platform called "TruthGPT", an alternative to ChatGPT.

In the product development stage, generative AI can automatically generate new designs through existing planned training models, so that designers can improve these designs, thereby reducing labor costs and improving efficiency. In June 2023, Toyota Research Institute (TRI) unveiled a generative AI technique to help employees design car shapes faster. A designer can request, via text prompt, a suite of designs based on an initial prototype sketch with specific stylistic properties like “sleek,” “SUV-like,” and “modern”.

Leading foreign OEMs will deploy ADAS functions in China.

From January to June 2023, 9.256 million passenger cars were sold in China, of which 4.713 million units (down 3.5% from the same period last year), or 50.9% of the total (down 4.1 percentage points on a like-on-like basis), came from foreign brands. During the same period, 3.258 million foreign brand passenger cars in China were equipped with ADAS, jumping by 12.9% from the prior-year period and accounting for 61.8% of China's overall ADAS installations (down 5.4 percentage points compared with the same period of the previous year); the ADAS installation rate rose by 10 percentage points to 69.1%.  
In terms of ADAS level, from January to June 2023, 1.972 million foreign brand vehicles were fitted with L2 ADAS, with the installation rate up to 41.8%; 246,000 foreign brand vehicles were installed with L2.5 ADAS, with the installation rate up to 5.2%.   

国外OEM adas 3_副本.png

Leading foreign OEMs have made deployments for providing advanced intelligent driving assistance functions in the future.

In  2023H2, Mercedes-Benz will first launch its DRIVE Pilot feature in China. By then, Mercedes-Benz cars equipped with this function can drive from point to point on highways and urban expressways across the country.
Starting from 2024, SAIC-GM will provide the Chinese market with NOA and HPA on highways and urban public roads.
Tesla is also vigorously deploying its autonomous driving business in China, hoping to introduce its FSD solution in China (expected in 2024). In August 2023, Tesla planned to establish a local operation team of around 20 people to implement its FSD solution into the Chinese market. Tesla also tried to set up a data labeling team consisting of about 100 people in China to prepare for training the FSD algorithm.

Leading foreign OEMs are open to cooperation in China and shore up their weak spots.

Faced with the rising passenger car sales of Chinese local OEMs and intelligence competition from them, leading foreign OEMs have become more open in layout and cooperation in China, decentralizing power to their R&D teams in China and exchanging capital for technology to shore up their weak spots.
First, leading foreign OEMs, including BMW, Volkswagen and Hyundai Motor, have given their R&D teams in China more authority. In addition, Toyota and Nissan have put forward the idea of feeding back technologies in China to the world.

国外OEM adas 4_副本.png

Second, since the second half of 2023 many leading foreign OEMs have begun to quicken their pace of mass-producing intelligent driving to gain greater competitive edges by cooperating with Chinese brands.  

In July 2023, Volkswagen acquired a 4.99% stake in Xpeng for USD700 million. In terms of R&D, Xpeng will provide technologies such as vehicle platforms, intelligent cockpits and intelligent driving software, while Volkswagen is mainly responsible for the interior and exterior design of bodies and models. 

In August 2023, Nissan intended to cooperate with Dongfeng Motor, and use the S BEV platform in Dongfeng Motor's “Quantum Intelligent Electric Architecture” (launched in April 2023) for R&D and production. The new quantum architecture will be equipped with 800V high-voltage fast charging technology, enabling a cruising range of more than 1,200 kilometers, and supporting shared battery swapping.

In September 2023, Hyundai Motor Group announced that it would strengthen cooperation with BAIC Group in new energy vehicles, and the models in their cooperative project were in the development and testing stage.

According to LatePost Auto, Huang Chang, CTO of Horizon Robotics, will join the joint venture between Horizon Robotics and Volkswagen with some senior R&D personnel from Horizon Robotics. The joint venture will use the intelligent driving solutions and algorithm training platform of Horizon Robotics to provide Volkswagen with driving assistance functions including highway NOA. 

With the help of local ADAS suppliers in China, leading foreign OEMs will narrow the gap with Chinese local OEMs in intelligent driving functions in the next 2 or 3 years.

Definition of ADAS Levels
Definition of ADAS Functions

1. ADAS Installation of Foreign Leading OEMs
1.1 ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: Overview
1.2 ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Level
1.3 ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Function
1.4 Breakdown of ADAS Functions and Levels of Foreign Leading OEMs
1.5 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: Overview
1.6 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Brand
1.7 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Brand
1.8 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Model
1.9 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installations and Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Price
1.10 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installation Rate of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Price
1.11 L2 and Higher-level ADAS Installations of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Price + Model
1.12 L2.5 and Higher-level ADAS Installations of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Price + Model
1.13 L2+ ADAS Installations of Foreign Leading OEMs: By Price + Model

2. ADAS/AD R&D Modes and Trends of Foreign Leading OEMs
2.1 Comparison between ADAS/AD Software Development Modes of Foreign Leading OEMs
2.1.1 ADAS/AD Software R&D Modes of Foreign Leading OEMs: Case 1
2.1.2 ADAS/AD Software R&D Modes of Foreign Leading OEMs: Case 2
2.1.3 ADAS/AD Software R&D Modes of Foreign Leading OEMs: Case 3
2.1.4 ADAS/AD Software R&D Modes of Foreign Leading OEMs: Case 4

2.2 ADAS/AD Software R&D of Foreign Leading OEMs - Software-defined Vehicles Are Accomplished by EEA Upgrading
2.2.1 ADAS/AD Software R&D of Foreign Leading OEMs: SOA Software Development Case 1
2.2.2 ADAS/AD Software R&D of Foreign Leading OEMs: SOA Software Development Case 2
2.2.3 ADAS/AD Software R&D of Foreign Leading OEMs: SOA Software Development Case 3

2.3 Summary of ADAS/AD R&D Trends of Foreign Leading OEMs
2.3.1 Trend 1
2.3.2 Trend 2
2.3.3 Trend 3 AI LLM Application Layout of Foreign Leading OEMs Application of AI LLM Technology in Autonomous Driving: Case 1 Application of AI LLM Technology in Autonomous Driving: Case 2 Application of AI LLM Technology in Autonomous Driving: Case 3
2.3.4 Trend 4 
2.3.5 Trend 5 Leading Foreign OEMs Adjust Their Layout Strategies in China: Case 1 Leading Foreign OEMs Adjust Their Layout Strategies in China: Case 2

3. ADAS/AD Solutions of Leading Foreign OEMs
3.1 ADAS Implementation Planning of Leading Foreign OEMs
3.2 L2 ADAS Layout: Functions and Solutions
3.3 L2.5 ADAS Layout: Functions and Solutions
3.4 L3 ADAS Layout: Functions, Solutions and Implementation Challenges
3.7 L4 Robotaxi Business Layout: Functions and Solutions
3.6 L3 ADAS Layout: Laws and Regulations of Countries
3.7 L4 ADAS Layout: Overseas Laws and Regulations
3.8 L4 ADAS Layout: Laws and Regulations in China
3.9 Partners

4. OEM ADAS/AD of Foreign Leading OEMs
4.1 Tesla
4.1.1 Profile Global Strategy - Building Synergistic Ecological Business Global Strategy - Delivery of Cybertruck in 2023 Revenue and R&D Investment Global Sales Volume
4.1.2 ADAS/AD Global - Introduction to ADAS Global - ADAS Business Charging Model Global - Introduction to FSD System Global - Hardware Platform Iteration of FSD System: from Outsourcing to Self-developed Chips Global - Hardware Configuration Iteration of FSD System: 12 Camera Interfaces Global - Function Iteration of FSD System: HW 4.0 Adds Emergency Vehicle Detection Global - ADAS-related Function Iteration of FSD System (1) Global - ADAS-related Function Iteration of FSD System (2) Global - Comparison between HW4.0 and HW3.0 (1) Global - Comparison between HW4.0 and HW3.0 (2) Global - HW4.0 Cost Estimation Global - FSD 1.0 Global - FSD 2.0 Global - Robotaxi Planning Global - Robotaxi Operation Platform Global - Robotaxi Shared Fleet China - With a data center in China, the FSD solution may be introduced to China in 2024 ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) ADAS Supply
4.1.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Quasi-centralized Architecture Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Overall Software Algorithm System Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Characteristics of Overall Algorithm Iteration Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Perception Algorithm Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Perception Algorithm Optimization Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Control Algorithm Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Data Annotation Evolves from Manual Mode to Automatic Mode Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Automatic Data Annotation Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Automatic Lane Marking Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Simulation Training Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Data Engine Workflow Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Data Engine Used for Algorithm Optimization Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Features of -Dojo Supercomputer Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: AI Training Chip D1 of Dojo Supercomputer Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Training Tile Based on D1 of Dojo Supercomputer Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: ExaPOD Based on D1 of Dojo Supercomputer Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Dojo ExaPOD Software Stack of Dojo Supercomputer Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: FSD is Connected with the Underlying Module of Optimus

4.2 Mercedes-Benz
4.2.1 Profile Overall Global Strategy - Stick to the Luxury Market Global Model Platform Planning - Only Battery-electric Vehicles Will Be Promoted from 2025. Global Sales Volume - The Sales Volume of Battery-electric Vehicles Increased by 93% year-on-year in the first half of 2023 Revenue and R&D Investment
4.2.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Roadmap Global - Core Functions of Intelligent Drive Next Level Global - Sensor Configuration of Intelligent Drive Next Level Global - Iterative Direction of the Next-generation L2 System (to be launched with the MMA Platform in 2024): Fully Unleash the Potential of Machine Learning Global - Design Principles of L3 Drive Pilot Global - Functions of L3 Drive Pilot Global - Functions of Takeover Strategy and Minimum Risk Strategy of L3 Drive Pilot Global - Technical Features of L3 Drive Pilot Global - Hardware Architecture of L3 Drive Pilot (for S-Class and EQS) Global - Hardware Architecture of L3 Drive Pilot (for Models Equipped with Official MBOS) Global - Iterative Direction of L3 Drive Pilot: Improve the Computing Power of the System without HD Maps Global - L4 Parking: Technical Path Focusing on Parking Lots Global - L4 Parking: Parking Lot Hardware Layout Global - Robotaxi Progress: Stop R&D and Focus on Assisted Driving Technology China - The Chinese Team Is Granted Independent Development Authority ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) Dynamics in ADAS/AD Cooperation
4.2.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: New E-Class Evolves to Central Integrated Electronic and Electrical Architecture Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: STAR3 EEA (Domain Controller Architecture) Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software R&D Mode and Planning (Autonomous Driving Software) Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Design Concept of MB.OS, a Self-developed Software System Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Features of MB.OS Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Hardware Architecture of MB.OS Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Chip Strategy of MB.OS Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Architecture and Development Mode of MB.OS Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Functional Experience of MB.OS: Navigation Is Regarded as the Focus Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Data Cloud of MB.OS: Multi-cloud Strategy Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Partners of MB.OS Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Summary of Intelligent Driving Software Charging Services Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Intelligent Driving Paid Services: Customized Navigation of AutoNavi (amap.com) Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Cooperation with Nvidia in Software-defined Vehicle Development
4.2.4 Commercial Vehicle ADAS Global Commercial Vehicle ADAS Planning Scalable Autonomous Truck Platform of Daimler Truck Application Scenarios of Daimler’s Autonomous Trucks Daimler Truck’s Subsidiary Torc Provides Autonomous Driving Ecosystem to Fleet Customers Commercial Vehicle ADAS/AD Layout and Cooperation Dynamics

4.3 BMW
4.3.1 Profile Global Strategy - 50% of the Group's Sales Volume in 2030 Will Come from Battery-electric Vehicles Global Model Planning 2023-2024 Global Sales Volume Revenue and R&D Investment Global R&D Network - Europe Global R&D Network - Outside Europe
4.3.2 ADAS/AD ADAS Development Strategy - Build a Modular and Scalable Autopilot Platform Scalable Autonomous Driving Platform Architecture Global - ADAS/AD Roadmap Global - L2 Assisted Driving Functions Global - Functions and Solutions of L2+ ADAS Pro System Global - Sensor Supply of L2+ ADAS Pro System Global - Main Features of L2+ ADAS Pro System Global - Features of L3 Personal Pilot Global - Sensor Solution of L3 Personal Pilot Global - ODD of L3 Personal Pilot Global - Redundancy Design of L3 Personal Pilot Global - System Takeover and Risk Minimization Strategy of L3 Personal Pilot Global - L3 Autonomous Driving Development Center Global - Introduction to L4 AVP - ADAS R&D Layout in China China - Investment in China China - Model Portfolio in China China - Localized R&D Product Cases: iDrive 9 Automotive Operating System ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) Intelligent Driving Partners Dynamics in ADAS/AD Cooperation
4.3.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: Research on Central Computing Architecture in 2024 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: Domain Controller Architecture Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: Case of Model Equipped with Domain Controller Architecture - BMW iX Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: Central Computing Architecture Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Route: Central Computing Architecture-Hierarchical EE Architecture Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software: R&D Distribution Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software: Software Integration Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software: Operating System Iteration Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software: Features of iDrive 8 Operating System Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software: Critical TechWorks, a Software Joint Venture Company Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software: Cooperation in Software Development

4.4 Audi
4.4.1 Profile Global Strategy - Completely Stop the Research and Development of Fuel Vehicles from 2026 and Focus on the Battery-electric Vehicle Market Global Strategy - Mass- produce the First Batch of Vehicles Based on PPE Platform in 2024 Revenue and R&D Investment Global Sales Volume
4.4.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - L2+ System Global - L3 System (Released in 2017 and Abandoned in 2019) (1) Global - L3 System (Released in 2017 and Abandoned in 2019) (2) Global - L4 System: Artemis Project Global - L4 System: Artemis Model Software Architecture Global - L4 System: Four Concept Cars Based on PPE Platform Support L4 Autonomous Driving Global - L4 System: Technical Comparison between Four Concept Cars Based on PPE Platform Global - L4 System: Demonstration of L4 Autonomous Driving Integrating V2X Signals China - L4 System: Platooning Test (1) China - L4 System: Platooning Test (2) China - Layout in China China - Local Cooperation: Cooperate with FAW to Introduce PPE Platform to China for Production in 2024 China - Local Cooperation: Cooperate with SAIC to Develop Intelligent Connected Electric Vehicle Portfolio ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) ADAS/AD Layout ADAS/AD Partners
4.4.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: the Early Prototype of Central Computing Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Central Computing Cluster

4.5 Volkswagen
4.5.1 Profile Global Strategy - Revenue Goal: EUR3 Trillion in 2025 Global Strategy - the Scalable Systems Platform (SSP) Will Be Launched in 2026 Global Strategy - 1.4 million Vehicles Will Use the SSP Architecture in 2038 Revenue and R&D Investment Global Sales Volume Technology R&D direction - Focus on Software Development, Customer Demand and the Future SSP for Electric Vehicles 
4.5.2 ADAS/AD Global - Autonomous Driving through Two Major Paths Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - L2+ System: IQ.Drive Global - Autonomous Driving R&D Strategy and Planning: Commercialization Will First Be Realized in Germany in 2026 Global - Autonomous Driving R&D Strategy and Planning: System Capabilities Will Be Secured to Operate Autonomous Driving Fleets by 2030 Global - Cooperation in Autonomous Driving R&D Global - Test Autonomous Model: ID Buzz (in cooperation with ARGO AI) Global - Test Autonomous Model: ID Buzz (in cooperation with Mobileye) Global - Autonomous Driving Service Pilot: Overview Global - Autonomous Driving Service Pilot: Mobility Service Ecology China - R&D Layout in China China - Investment in China China - Local Cooperation Cases: Cooperation with Xpeng China - Local Partners: Volkswagen (China) Technology Co., Ltd. (VCTC) ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) Dynamics in ADAS/AD Cooperation
4.5.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - R&D of Intelligent Driving EEA Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - CARIAD, an Autonomous Driving Software R&D Company Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software R&D Planning of CARIAD Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - CARIAD’s Autonomous Driving Software R&D: Features of E3 1.1+ and 1.2 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - CARIAD’s Autonomous Driving Software R&D: E3 2.0 Is Pre-equipped with L4 Autonomous Driving Technology Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Technical Advantages and Challenges of CARIAD’s Autonomous Driving Software Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - CARIAD Reorganizes and Adjusts to Strengthen Cooperation Among Its Brands Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - CARIAD’s Autonomous Driving Software R&D Model: Transition from Highly Independent R&D to Collaborative Development Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - CARIAD China Has Independent Development Authority Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Development Projects Dominated by CARIAD China Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Autonomous Driving Software Cooperation of CARIAD

4.6 GM
4.6.1 Profile Global Strategy - Invest US$35 Billion in Electric and Autonomous Vehicles from 2020 to 2025 Global Strategy - Model Platform Planning Revenue Global Sales Volume
4.6.2 ADAS/AD Global - Introduction to ADAS Global - Software and hardware Iteration of ADAS: from External Perception Algorithms to Self-developed Software Global - Main Features of L2 Super Cruise Global - the First-generation L2 Super Cruise: HD Map Data System Global - the First-generation L2 Super Cruise: Sensor Configuration Global - the First-generation L2 Super Cruise: Main Functions Global - the Second-generation L2 Super Cruise: Sensor Configuration Global - the Second-generation L2 Super Cruise: Main Functions Global - L3 Ultra Cruise: Main Features Global - L3 Ultra Cruise: Sensing Technology Is Combined with Self-developed Software Global - L3 Ultra Cruise: Main Functions Global - Development Course of L4 Robotaxi: Large-scale Commercialization in 2023. Global - Development Course of L4 Robotaxi: Large-scale Development Goals and Technical Support Global - Development Course of L4 Robotaxi: Cruise Origin Is Expected to Be Mass-produced in 2023 Global - Development Course of L4 Robotaxi: the Self-developed Cruise Origin Chip Adopts ARM Architecture and Will Land on Vehicles in 2025 Global - L4 Robotaxi: Commercial Operation Strategy Global - L4 Robotaxi: Commercial Operation Deployment China - Layout in China: Test L4 Autonomous Driving Equipped with Momenta Solution in Shanghai China - Layout in China: Provide Highway/City NOA in China from 2024 ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model): Buick Dynamics in ADAS/AD Cooperation ADAS/AD Partners
4.6.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Global B Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: the Self-developed Ultifi Software Platform Was First Installed in Chevrolet Silverado EV in 2023 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Vehicle Intelligence Platform (VIP)

4.7 Volvo
4.7.1 Profile Global Strategy - Full Electrification of All Brands in 2030 Global Revenue Global Sales Volume
4.7.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - ADAS Layout Global - L2 System: Pilot Assist Global - L3 System: Ride Pilot Global - L4 System: Highway Pilot Global - ADAS/AD Layout Global - ADAS/AD Partners China - Layout in China - Establish Asia-Pacific Software Integration Center in Shanghai ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model)
4.7.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Overall EEA Planning Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Zonal Architecture Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Central EEA Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Software Strategy Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Completely Acquire Zenseact and Establish a Big Data Factory Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Zenseact Develops OnePilot Autonomous Driving Decision-Making Software System Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Support Software Strategy with the Next-generation Model Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Software and Hardware Configuration of EX90 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Cooperation in Software Development Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Software Developer Ecosystem

4.8 Ford
4.8.1 Profile Global Strategy - Independent Electric Vehicle Business Global Revenue Global Sales Volume
4.8.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - ADAS/AD Iteration Global - L2 System: Co-Pilot360 Global - L2 System: Co-Pilot360 2.0 Global - L2 System: Typical Models with Co-Pilot360 2.0 Global - L2+ System: Software and Hardware Configuration of BlueCruise Global - L2+ System: Main Functions of BlueCruise Global - L2+ System: Three New Functions of BlueCruise V1.2.1 Global - L2+ System: Installation of BlueCruise Global - L4 Robotaxi Business (Closed in October 2022) Global - L4 Robotaxi Business (Closed in October 2022): Sensor Configuration of the Fourth-generation Test Vehicle Global - L4 Robotaxi Business (Closed in October 2022): Test Vehicle Iteration Global - Latitude AI, an Autonomous Driving Subsidiary, Was Set up to Shift from L4 Autonomous Driving to L2 and L3 Assisted Driving China - Layout in China: Reduce Investment and Focus on High-return Business China - Layout in China: CVIS Officially Landed in Guangzhou China - Layout in China: BlueCruise Realizes OTA Updates in China China - Layout in China: NavInfo ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) ADAS/AD Layout ADAS/AD Partners
4.8.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Overall EEA Planning Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: FNV EEA Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: FNV EEA for Intelligent Driving Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: OTA Updates of FNV EEA

4.9 Hyundai
4.9.1 Profile Global Strategy - Transform into an Intelligent Mobility Solution Provider Global Strategy - Focus more on EVs and Aim to Sell 2 Million Vehicles in 2030 Global Revenue Global Sales Volume
4.9.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development History Global - ADAS/AD Technology Development Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - ADAS: Hyundai Smart Sense (1) Global - ADAS: Hyundai Smart Sense (2) Global - L2 + System Global - L3 Highway Driving Pilot: to Be Launched in South Korea in 2023 Global - L4 Robotaxi: to Be Commercialized in the United States by the End of 2023 Global - L4 Robotaxi: Development Process Global - L4 Robotaxi: IONIQ 5 China - Layout in China: Establish a Digital R&D Center to Target Software Localization ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) ADAS/AD Layout ADAS/AD Partners ADAS/AD Partners: Aurora, Baidu ADAS/AD Partners: Aptiv ADAS/AD Partners: Pony.ai
4.9.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Adopt Domain Centralized EEA in 2025 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Transfer to Software Definition (SDVs) in 2025. Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: KRW1.5 Trillion Is Invested in 42dot to Build a Global Software Center Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Cooperate with Nvidia and Launch Its Own Automotive System ccOS in 2025.

4.10 Toyota
4.10.1 Profile Global Strategy - Transform into a Mobility Company Global Strategy - Model Planning Global Revenue Global Sales Volume
4.10.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development Planning Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - Iteration of L2 TSS (Toyota Safety Sense) System Global - L2+ TAD: Main Functions Global - L2+ TAD: Sensor Configuration Global - L2+ TAD: Core Technology Global - L2+ TAD: Main ECUs Global - L2+ TAD: Redundant System Global - L2+ TAD: OTA Software Updating Strategy Global - L3 Guardian System (1) Global - L3 Guardian System (2) Global - L4/L5 Chauffer System: Test Vehicle Iteration Global - L4/L5 Chauffer System: Chauffer Will Be Used For Mobility Services Global - L4/L5 System: e-Palette Platform China - Layout in China: Establish a Self-circulating Technology System in China China - Layout in China: Transfer from "Global Technology Adapting to China" to “Frontier Technology Integration in China” China - Layout in China: Establish a Joint Venture with Pony.ai to Support Large-scale Robotaxi deployment ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) ADAS/AD Layout ADAS/AD Layout: Woven Capital Acquired the L5 Business of Lyft ADAS/AD Layout: Woven Planet Uses Low-cost Cameras to Develop Autonomous Driving Technology ADAS/AD Layout: AMP Crowdsourced Maps ADAS/AD Partners Investment in ADAS/ ADAS
4.10.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Overall EEA Planning Smart Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Central & Zone Concept (1) Smart Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Central & Zone Concept (2) Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Woven Planet Was Established to Train 9000 Employees to Expand the Pool of Software Talents Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Acquisition of Renovo Motors, a Automotive Operating System Developer Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: NMPC Improves Autonomous Vehicle Safety

4.11 Honda
4.11.1 Profile Global Strategy - the Annual Output of Battery-electric Vehicles Will Be Increased to more than 2 Million Units in 2030 Global Strategy - Model Planning: Ten Battery-electric Models Will Be Launched in China in 2027 Global Revenue and Sales Volume
4.11.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development Goal Global - ADAS/AD Development Route Global - L2 Honda SENSING System (1) Global - L2 Honda SENSING System (2) Global - L2.5 Honda Sensing 360 System Global - L2.5 Honda Sensing 360 System (Upgraded Version) Global - L3 Honda SENSING Elite System (1) Global - L3 Honda SENSING Elite System (2) Global - L3 Honda SENSING Elite System (3) Global - L3 Honda SENSING Elite System (4) Global - L3 Honda SENSING Elite System (Upgraded Version) Global - L4 System: Augmented Driving Concept Global - L4 System: CI Micro Mobility Technology Global - L4 System: CI Micro Mobility Technology Will Be Implemented in 2030 China - Sale of Fuel Vehicles Will Cease in China in 2030 ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) ADAS/AD Layout ADAS/AD Layout: Establish a Joint Venture with Sony ADAS/AD Layout: LOKI Dataset Trainable Model ADAS/AD Layout: Patent of “Autonomous Delivery System for Transporting Baggages with Autonomous Mobile Equipment" ADAS/AD Partners
4.11.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - Software Technology: Develop an Independent Vehicle Operating System for Medium and Large Battery-electric Vehicles in 2025

4.12 Nissan
4.12.1 Profile Global - Strategy 2030 Global Revenue Global Sales Volume
4.12.2 ADAS/AD Global - ADAS/AD Development Route (1) Global - ADAS/AD Development Route (2) Global - ADAS: Iteration Global - ADAS: ProPilot 1.0 Was Mass-produced in 2016 Global - ProPilot 1.0 Was Mass-produced in 2016 Global - ProPilot 2.0 Was Mass-produced in 2019 (1) Global - ProPilot 2.0 Was Mass-produced in 2019 (2) Global - ProPilot 3.0 Was Mass-produced in 2025 Global - ProPilot 3.0 Global - Models Equipped with ProPILOT Global - ProPILOT Park Automated Parking System Global - L4 Robotaxi Business China - Layout in China: a Mobility Service Co., Ltd. Was Established to Focus on Robotaxi Business China - Layout in China: Robotaxi Test in Suzhou ADAS Installation in the Chinese Market (by Brand and Model) Dynamics in ADAS/AD Cooperation ADAS/AD Partners ADAS/AD Partners: Mobileye, TomTom ADAS/AD Partners: Luminar
4.12.3 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - EEA: Centralized EEA Will Be Adopted in 2026 Intelligent Driving Technology Layout - ADAS Technology Based on LiDAR

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