European New Energy Vehicle Industry Report, 2017-2021
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After a really close race for the “Best Seller” title, with the deliveries delay of the 40 kWh Renault Zoe units artificially dragging down the Zoe performance, with 21,735 units registered in 2016 (422 of them being 2-seater LCVs -- aka, vans). The Outlander PHEV, despite seeing its sales drop 32% compared to 2015, still managed to give chills to Renault and leave the “Best Seller” title decision to the last week of December, when the Zoe deliveries really took off.

Nissan LEAF ended 2016 in 3rd, with 18,827 registrations, up 21% YoY, being effectively its best year in Europe since it arrived in 2011 -- all thanks to the 30 kWh battery in the first half of the year and heavy discounting later.

A hot item on the EV market today is the luxury SUV class. The Volvo XC90 T8 won this category, with almost 10,000 units, three times more sales than the 2015 winner had back then (Porsche Cayenne PHEV, 3,385 units). Interestingly, this year, four luxury SUVs (Volvo XC90, BMW X5, Audi Q7, and Tesla Model X) sold more than last year’s winner.

In the manufacturer ranking, BMW won its first manufacturer title, with 17% market share, leaving last year’s winner, Volkswagen, in 2nd place (15%), and Renault in 3rd, with 13% share. Nissan and Mitsubishi followed, both at 10%.

In 2015, BMW was only 6th, with 8% share. The reasons for this turnaround lie in BMW’s ever-expanding i-Performance PHEV lineup pumping out sales at full speed and the new 33 kWh version of the i3, which pulled sales of the RWD hatchback to record heights.


At present, Renault-Nissan Alliance takes the leading position in European electric vehicle market, but European automakers like Volkswagen, BMW and Daimler also spare no efforts to advance their electrification strategies.

Daimler vows to make investments of EUR10 billion in EV field in the next five to seven years; Mercedes-Benz will launch over 10 EV models by 2025, and then EV will occupy 15%-25% of its total sales. 

In current stage, BMW has two EV segments: i series (i3 and i8) and iPerformance (PHEV models). BMW will devote itself to iNext strategy in the next decade.  

Volkswagen will unveil 17 new energy models before 2020, and introduce its MEB (Modular Electrification Toolkit) pure electric platform to complete EV strategic layout. 13 of the 17 models will be developed based on the existing MQB and MLB platforms, and the other 4 models will be I.D. series BEVs, employing MEB platform. Volkswagen will reconstruct several plants in Germany and build EV production lines to make MEB-based EVs.

Given the global trend towards accelerating CO2 emission reduction, fuel efficiency standards will be further tightened. Stronger policy to push the expansion of EVs may be put into place, but policy is not the only important factor. Technological advances are crucial as well. While lithium-ion battery prices3 are decreasing, energy density and thus driving range is increasing. In October 2016, a succession of EV models with a range of around 300 km debuted at the Paris Motor Show. In 2020 and beyond, models with a range of over 500 km may hit the road, due to greater battery performance. Lightweighting, or reducing vehicle body weight, is another key factor.

Norway will lead Europe in proliferating EVs, followed by the Netherlands, and large countries such as France, the UK, and Germany. Should the current incentives to promote the adoption of EVs remain unchanged, it will be post-2020 that EVs enter a period of expansion in the major markets. By then, the total cost of EV ownership is expected to further decrease. Technological advances such as improving battery performance and lightweighting materials would contribute to acceleration of EVs becoming popular throughout Europe.

The report highlights the following:
20120114.gifOutput, sales and trade of passenger cars and commercial vehicles in Europe;
20120114.gifNew energy vehicle development strategies, incentives and electrification in major European countries;
20120114.gifEuropean new energy vehicle market (registration, sales of new energy passenger cars and commercial vehicles, charging infrastructure construction, etc.);
20120114.gif6 European new energy passenger car manufacturers (operation, electrification strategy, new energy layout in China, etc.);
20120114.gif18 European new energy bus manufacturers (main models, technical parameters of battery and electric drive systems, suppliers, etc.);
20120114.gifMedium- and long-term outlook for development of global and European new energy vehicle markets. 

1 European Automobile Market
1.1 Passenger Car
1.2 Commercial Vehicle

2 Subsidy Policies and Electrification in Major European Countries
2.1 Austria
2.2 Germany
2.3 France
2.4 Norway
2.5 Netherlands
2.6 UK
2.7 Spain
2.8 Sweden
2.9 Switzerland 

3 European New Energy Vehicle Market
3.1 Registration
3.2 New Energy Passenger Car Sales
3.3 New Energy Commercial Vehicle Sales
3.4 Charging Infrastructure

4 European New Energy Passenger Car Manufacturers
4.1 Daimler
4.1.1 Operation
4.1.2 Electric Vehicle Business
4.1.3 China Market
4.2 BMW
4.2.1 Operation
4.2.2 Electric Vehicle Business
4.2.3 China Market
4.3 Audi
4.3.1 Operation
4.3.2 Electric Vehicle Business
4.3.3 China Market
4.4 Volkswagen
4.4.1 Operation
4.4.2 Electric Vehicle Business
4.4.3 China Market
4.5 Renault-Nissan Alliance
4.5.1 Operation
4.5.2 Electric Vehicle Business
4.5.3 China Market
4.6 PSA
4.6.1 Operation
4.6.2 Electric Vehicle Business
4.6.3 China Market

5 European New Energy Bus Manufacturers
5.1 Alexander Dennis Limited
5.1.1 Profile
5.1.2 Main Models
5.1.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.2 BYD Auto Industry Company Limited
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 Main Models
5.2.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.3 Caetano Bus
5.3.1 Profile
5.3.2 Main Models
5.3.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.4 Chariot Motors
5.4.1 Profile
5.4.2 Main Models
5.4.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.5 Ebusco B.V.
5.5.1 Profile
5.5.2 Main Models
5.5.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.6 Evopro Bus Kft.
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 Main Models
5.6.3Battery and Electric Drive System
5.7 Carrosserie Hess AG
5.7.1 Profile
5.7.2 Main Models
5.7.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.8 Heuliez Bus
5.8.1 Profile
5.8.2 Main Models
5.8.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.9 Hybricon Bus System AB
5.9.1 Profile
5.9.2 Main Models
5.9.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.10.1 Profile
5.10.2 Main Models
5.10.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.11 Otokar Otomotiv Ve Savunma Sanayi A. S.
5.11.1 Profile
5.11.2 Main Models
5.11.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.12 Rampini Carlo SPA
5.12.1 Profile
5.12.2 Main Models
5.12.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.13 Skoda Electric A.S.
5.13.1 Profile
5.13.2 Main Models
5.13.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.14 Solaris
5.14.1 Profile
5.14.2 Main Models
5.14.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.15 Sor Libchavy, Spol. S R.O.
5.15.1 Profile
5.15.2 Main Models
5.15.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.16 Van Hool
5.16.1 Profile
5.16.2 Main Models
5.16.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.17 VDL Bus & Coach
5.17.1 Profile
5.17.2 Main Models
5.17.3 Battery and Electric Drive System
5.18 Volvo Bus Corporation
5.18.1 Profile
5.18.2 Main Models
5.18.3 Battery and Electric Drive System

6 Outlook for New Energy Vehicle Market
6.1 Global
6.2 Europe

New Passenger Car Registration in Europe, 2010-2016
New Vehicle Registration in Major European Countries, 2010-2016
New Vehicle Registration Structure in Europe by Fuel Type, 2014-2016
Ownership of Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles in Europe, 2006-2015 (million units) 
Passenger Car Ownership in Major European Countries, 2010-2015
Global New Vehicle Output by Region, 2015-2016
New Vehicle Output in Europe by Country, 2015-2016
Import Value/Volume of Passenger Cars in Europe by Country, 2015-2016
Export Value/Volume of Passenger Cars in Europe by Country, 2015-2016
New Commercial Vehicle Registration in Europe by Model, 2015-2016
5 Major Commercial Vehicle Markets in Europe---New Commercial Vehicle Registration, 2015-2016  
5 Major Commercial Vehicle Markets in Europe---New Light Commercial Vehicle (≤3.5t) Registration, 2015-2016
5 Major Commercial Vehicle Markets in Europe---New Medium/Heavy Commercial Vehicle (>3.5t, excluding bus) Registration, 2015-2016
5 Major Commercial Vehicle Markets in Europe---New Medium/Heavy Bus (>3.5t) Registration, 2015-2016
Import/Export Volume of Commercial Vehicles in Europe by Type, 2015-2016
Import Volume of Commercial Vehicles in Europe by Country, 2015-2016
Export Volume of Commercial Vehicles in Europe by Country, 2015-2016
New Energy Vehicle Subsidy Polices in European Countries
EV Subsidy Policies in Austria
EV Registration in Austria, 2010-2017Q1
Distribution of Public Charging Piles in Austria, 2017
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in Austria by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in Austria by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in Austria by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in Austria by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
EV Subsidy Policies in Germany 
Ownership of Public Charging Piles in Germany, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in Germany by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in Germany by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in Germany by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in Germany by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
EV Subsidy Policies in France
Ownership of Public Charging Piles in France, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in France by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in France by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in France by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in France by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
EV Subsidy Policies in Norway
Evolvement of EV Policies in Norway
Ownership of Public Charging Piles in Norway, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in Norway by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in Norway by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in Norway by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in Norway by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
EV Subsidy Policies in Netherlands
EV Development in Netherlands, 2015-2016
Market Share of EVs in Netherlands by Type, 2011-2016
Ownership of Charging Piles in Netherlands by Region, 2016/2018E
Ownership of Charging Piles in Netherlands by Type, 2012-2016
Development of Electric Vehicles (EV+PHEV) and Public Charging Piles in Netherlands, 2012-2016
Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Registration in UK, 2010-2016
Market Share of Top 5 AFV Brands in UK
EV Subsidy Policies in UK
Ownership of Public Charging Piles in UK, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in UK by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in UK by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in UK by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in UK by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May) 
Distribution of Automakers in Spain
EV Output in Spain, 2012-2016
Light Electric Commercial Vehicle Output in Spain, 2011-2016
EV Registration in Spain by Model, 2016
Electric Passenger Car Sales in Spain by Model, 2015-2016
Light Electric Commercial Vehicle Sales in Spain by Model, 2015-2016
EV Ownership in Spain by Type, 2012-2016
EV Subsidy Policies in Sweden
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in Sweden by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in Sweden by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in Sweden by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in Sweden by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)  
EV Subsidy Policies in Switzerland
Ownership of Public Charging Piles in Switzerland, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in Switzerland by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in Switzerland by Sales, 2016
EV Sales in Switzerland by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May)
PHEV Sales in Switzerland by Model, 2013-2017 (Jan.-May) 
Registration of New Energy Vehicles (EV+PHEV+EREV+FCEV) in Europe by Country, 2014-2017Q1
PHEV Registration in Europe by Country, 2015-2017Q1
HEV Registration in Europe by Country, 2014-2017Q1
Ranking of New Energy Passenger Cars (EV+PHEV) in Europe by Model/Sales, 2016
Ranking of New Energy Passenger Cars (EV+PHEV) in Europe by Model/Sales, Jan.-May 2017
EV Sales in Europe by Model, 2011-May 2017
PHEV Sales in Europe by Model, 2011-May 2017
Market Share of Top 5 PHEV Models in Europe by Sales, 2016
Market Share of Top 5 EV Models in Europe by Sales, 2016
Sales of Top 10 Light Battery Electric Commercial Vehicles in Europe by Model, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Market Share of Top 5 Light Battery Electric Commercial Vehicles in Europe by Sales, 2016
Ownership of Charging Piles in Europe by Type, 2012-2017 (Jan.-May)
Number of EVs per Charging Pile in Major European Countries
Ownership of Charging Piles in Major European Countries by Power, 2016
Lineup of Mercedes-Benz’s PHEV Models, 2014-2017
Mercedes-Benz’s EV Development Goals, 2025
Daimler’s Battery Plants in Germany
Daimler’s Layout in China
Mercedes-Benz’s Sales (Including the Imported) in China, 2012-2017Q1
Daimler’s Manufacturing Plants in China
Number of Daimler’s 4S Stores in China, 2010-2016
Denza’s Sales, 2015-2016
Denza’s Battery System Layout
Power System of C350el
Technical Parameters of C350el 
BMW’s Global Sales by Region, 2016
BMW’s iNext Strategy
BMW’s EV Model Planning, 2017-2021
BMW’s EV Sales by Model, 2014-Jun. 2017
BMW’s EV Technology Planning
Drive System Components of BMW EV Models
Drive System Structure of BMW PHEV/EV Models
BMW’s EV R&D Layout
Distribution of BMW’s Battery Plants Worldwide
BMW’s Sales in China, 2006-2017H1
Technical Parameters of 530Le Motor
Technical Parameters of 530Le Battery System
Drive System Structure of Zinoro 60H
Audi’s Sales by Model, 2015-2016
Distribution of Audi’s Plants Worldwide
Audi’s Battery Electric Model Planning
Audi’s EV Strategic Planning, 2017-2025
Power System of A3 e-tron
Battery Pack Structure of A3 e-tron
Battery System of Audi Q7 e-tron
Presence of Audi’s Manufacturing Bases in China
Audi’s Sales in China, 2007-2017H1
Volkswagen’s Strategy 2025 
Distribution of Volkswagen’s Plants Worldwide
Volkswagen Group’s Sales Volume and Revenue by Brand, 2015-2016
Volkswagen Group’s Sales Volume and YoY Growth by Brand, Jan.-May 2017
Volkswagen Group’s Sales Volume and YoY Growth by Region, Jan.-May 2017
Volkswagen’s Model Planning, 2017  
Volkswagen’s EV Models
Volkswagen’s EV Model Planning
Layout of Volkswagen’s I.D. Series BEV Models
Volkswagen’s EV Platforms
Power System of e-Golf
Volkswagen’s Manufacturing Bases and Capacity Layout in China
Volkswagen Group’s Sales in China, 1987-2016
List of New Models Volkswagen Group Launched in China, 2017
Volkswagen Group’s Sales in China by Brand, 2015-2016
Volkswagen Group’s EV Strategic Planning in China 
Renault-Nissan Alliance’s Manufacturing Bases Worldwide
Cross-shareholding between Renault-Nissan Alliance and Daimler AG
TOP10 Markets of Renault-Nissan Alliance by Sales
Renault’s EV Product Lines
Renault’s EV and Battery Industry Layout
Battery Pack Structure of Renault ZOE
Upgrade Path for Renault ZOE’s Endurance Mileage
Upgrade Planning for Renault’s Power Battery Energy Density
Renault’s EV Model Planning
PSA’s Product Launch Worldwide
PSA’s Sales by Region, 2015-2016
PSA’s EV Model Planning
Alexander Dennis’ Main Electric Bus Models 
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Alexander Dennis’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems 
BYD’s Main Electric Bus Models  
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of BYD’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Caetano Bus’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Caetano Bus’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Chariot Motors’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Chariot Motors’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Ebusco’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Ebusco’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Evopro Bus’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Evopro Bus’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Carrosserie Hess’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Carrosserie Hess’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Heuliez Bus’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Heuliez Bus’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Hybricon Bus’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Hybricon Bus’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Optare’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Optare’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Otokar’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Otokar’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Rampini’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Rampini’s Battery and Drive Systems
Skoda Electric’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Skoda Electric’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Solaris’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Solaris’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
SOR’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of SOR’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Van Hool’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Van Hool’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
VDL Bus & Coach’s Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of VDL Bus & Coach’s Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Volvo Bus’ Main Electric Bus Models
Technical Parameters and Suppliers of Volvo Bus’ Battery and Electric Drive Systems
Global EV Sales by Region, 2015-2040E
Global EV Sales by Class, 2015-2040E
Global EV Penetration by Country, 2015-2021E
Global EV Penetration by Country, 2015-2040E
Main BEV Model Planning of German Automakers

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Cockpit-Driving Integration Research: many companies are making layout and may implement it during 2024-2025.  1. What is the real cockpit-driving integration? At present, automotive electroni...

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