Global and China Automated Parking and Autonomous Parking Industry Report, 2018-2019
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Automated parking system (APS) or automated parking assistant (APA) can measure the distance and angle between vehicle body and surroundings, collect sensor data to work out operation flow whilst automatically tuning the steering wheel, brake and throttle to pull into the parking space. Automated parking system can be divided by technical grades into semi-automatic parking (automatic steering only), fully automated parking (inclusive of automatic steering and automatic forwarding & reversing), autonomous valet parking (AVP), among others.

 AP 1_副本.png

Automated parking system is generally composed of environment perception system, central control system (path planning system) and execution system (vehicle control system). Taking the diversity of automated parking systems into account, ResearchInChina recently rolled out the Global and China Automated Parking and Autonomous Parking Industry Report, 2018-2019 where all automated parking systems are classified into nine levels including APL1, APL1.5, APL2, APL2.5, APL3, APL3.5, APL4, APL5 and APL6. (See the table below)

AP 2_副本.png

According to ResearchInChina, the APS configuration rate of passenger vehicles in Chinese market was 5.3% in 2018, a not high figure due to technical immaturity shown as follows:

In the mass-produced vehicle models with APS, the automated parking system still desires to be improved in real experience and is faced with system recognition error and the occurrence of scratches.
Most APS renders ultrasonic sensors for monitoring parking spaces, but ultrasonic sensors are vulnerable to surface stains & defects, raindrops, ice, snow, etc., and thus fail to be brought into full play.
Recognition of parking space and the process of automated parking are subject to environmental factors. The currently mass-produced APS system, for example, usually cannot recognize well lids, pits or loose kerbs, tiny objects on the parking space, among others. 

The current best-selling models with APS function are primarily from foreign automakers like Benz, Buick, Volkswagen, BMW and Land Rover as well as China-made premium brands LYNK&CO, Great Wall Motor’s WEY, etc.

 AP 3_副本.png

As automotive intelligence technologies and sensor technologies in particular are developing apace, OEMs are beginning to apply more sensors in the automated parking system, facilitating maturity of the APS technologies. Automated parking has already been a highlight of new car sales.

Geely SUV Binyue is one of the five most successful new cars in Chinese market in 2018. It debuted on October 31, 2018, with the sales outnumbering ten thousand units and reaching 10,100 units in the first month of launch, 13,222 units in December 2018 and 14,627 units in January 2019. Binyue is provided with fully automated parking system that enables horizontal pull-in, vertical pull-in as well as horizontal pull-out by only a key-touch whilst the driver does not have any control on steering wheel, throttle and brake. Binyue has the automated parking level APL3.5.

CS75 (the hit model of Changan Automobile) has the APA4.0 parking system which enable a man standing outside the car to realize one-key parking. Only a touch on the automated parking button is needed, the car can search the tailgate automatically, and performs operations such as forwarding, reversing and wheel steering. The entire parking process needs no driver engagement. CS75 has an automated parking level at APL4.

BAIC plans to have the majority of its vehicle models be equipped with the automated parking technologies from July 2019.

Among emerging car manufacturers, Xiaopeng Motors focuses on automatic parking. Xpeng G3 carries 20 environmental sensors including 12 ultrasonic sensors, 5 vision sensors and 3 radars. That XPENG uses numerous sensor systems to make parking spaces recognized more accurately and lift probability of success in parking is an effective solution to the problems of low parking space recognition and many unsuccessful parking cases, adding more automatic parking capabilities. Xiaopeng says that success rate of its car automatic parking system exceeds 70% compared with less than 5% in general automatic parking and Tesla’s 13%.


AP 4.png 

As automatic parking technology grows mature and OEMs invest more in APS, installation of such a system will soar from 2020 after years of slow increase, expectedly outstripping 20% in 2023.

AP 5_副本.png
 

Traditional automakers follow an upgrading automated parking technology roadmap in ToC market, while Tier1 suppliers, technology firms and start-ups also have made an attempt to deploy automated valet parking (AVP) pilot projects at one go in ToB market.  

AP 6_副本.png

 

1 Automated Parking Concepts and Technologies
1.1 Concepts and Definition
1.1.1 Concepts and Classification
1.1.2 Representative Vehicle Models and Existing Problems
1.1.3 Five-stage Automated Parking Defined by Bosch
1.1.4 Automated Parking Rating Defined by ResearchInChina
1.2 Composition and Technologies of Automatic Parking System
1.2.1 Composition
1.2.2 Fundamental Principles
1.2.3 Automated Parking System Configuration of Typical Foreign Vehicle Models
1.2.4 Key Technologies
1.3 Development Trends
1.3.1 General Trends
1.3.2 More and More Enterprises Develop AVP Systems

2 Automated Parking Market 
2.1 Proportion and Quarterly Sales Share of New APA-enabled Vehicle Models (2017Q1-2018Q4) 
2.2 Classification and Quarterly Sales Volume of New APA-enabled Vehicle Models (by Ultrasonic, Camera and Ultrasonic + Camera) 
2.3 Ranking of APA-enabled Vehicle Models in 2018 by Sales Volume (by Car Brand and Vehicle Model)  
2.4 APA Solutions and Representative Vehicle Models of Major Car Brands
2.5 Installation Rate of APA by Price (2017Q1-2018Q4) 
2.6 Top 30 APA Ranking by Installation Rate in 2018 (by Car Brand) 
2.7 Quarterly Installation Rate of Ultrasonic APA by Price (2017Q1-2018Q4)  
2.8 Quarterly Installation Rate of (Camera + Ultrasonic) APA by Price (2017Q1-2018Q4)  
2.9 Quarterly Ultrasonic Radar Number of Ultrasonic APA (2017Q1-2018Q4) 
2.10 APA Solution Ranking by Installation Rate in 2018 (by Car Brand)
2.11 Ranking of Automated Parking Patent Filings
2.12 Installation Rate of Automated Parking in Chinese Passenger Car Market (2014-2022) 
 
3 Parking Technology Standards
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Scope
3.3 Terminology and Definition
3.4 APS Types and General Requirements
3.4.1 Basic System Features
3.4.2 APS Types
3.4.3 General Requirements
3.5 Features and Performance Requirements of APS Type 1 
3.5.1 Basic System Features
3.5.2 Driver Interaction and Information Display
3.5.3 Minimum Performance Requirements
3.5.4 Performance Test Requirements of APS Type 1
3.6 Features and Performance Requirements of APS Type 2 
3.6.1 Basic System Features
3.6.2 Driver Interaction and Information Display
3.6.3 Minimum Performance Requirements
3.6.4 Performance Test Requirements of APS Type 2


4 APA/AVP Technology Providers 
4.1 Valeo
4.1.1 Parking Business
4.1.2 Autonomous Driving Roadmap
4.1.3 Park4U? Parking Product Line
4.1.4 Automated Parking Technology Roadmap
4.1.5 Interpretation of Park4U Autonomous Parking System
4.1.6 Cyber Valet Services
4.2 Bosch
4.2.1 ADAS and Autonomous Driving Product Line 
4.2.2 Automated Parking Technology Roadmap
4.2.3 Automated Valet Parking (AVP) Project
4.2.4 AVP Is Integrated on the Basis of "Car, Field and Cloud"  
4.2.5 AVP Field Transformation
4.2.6 Bosch Joins Alibaba Cloud to Promote AVP Technology in China
4.2.7 SITECH Will Introduce Bosch's AVP Technology
4.3 Hyundai Mobis 
4.4 ZongMu Technology 
4.4.1 Profile  
4.4.2 Two Business Models
4.4.3 Integrated Solution of Shared Mobility and Autonomous Parking 
4.4.3 Integrated Solution of Shared Mobility and Autonomous Parking  
4.4.4 Autonomous Parking Technology Solution
4.4.5 Autonomous Parking Technology Roadmap
4.4.6 Partners
4.4.7 Customers
4.4.8 Three Autonomous Parking Packages Are Released
4.5 UISEE 
4.5.1 Profile  
4.5.2 Products and Technologies
4.5.3 AVP Solution 
4.5.4 Autonomous Parking Application Cases 
4.6 Baidu AVP
4.6.1 Profile of AVP 
4.6.2 AVP Technology Solution 
4.6.3 HD Map of Indoor Parking Lot
4.6.4 AVP Security Framework
4.6.5 Autonomous Parking Application Cases
4.7 HoloMatic 
4.7.1 Profile  
4.7.2 HoloParking
4.7.3 Development Plan 
4.8 Intesight 
4.8.1 Profile 
4.8.2 Automated & Autonomous Parking System
4.8.3 Valet Parking System
4.8.4 Customers
4.9 Momenta
4.9.1 Profile 
4.9.2 Momenta Autonomous Driving Product Line
4.9.3 R&D of L4 Automated Parking Solution 
4.10 eMapgo
4.10.1 Profile 
4.10.2 Massive AVP Map Orders
4.11 Kunchen
4.11.1 Profile 
4.11.2 Products and Technology Solutions
4.11.3 Application Cases 
4.12 ForViSiON

5 OEM APA/AVP Application and Trends

5.1 Volkswagen
5.1.1 Profile of Automated Parking System
5.1.2 Schematic of Automated Parking System
5.1.3 Application Scenarios of Automated Parking System
5.1.4 Application Restrictions of Automated Parking System
5.1.5 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.2 BMW
5.2.1 Profile of Automated Parking System 
5.2.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.2.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System
5.2.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 
5.2.5 Intelligent Parking Layout

5.3 Daimler Benz
5.3.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.3.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.3.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.3.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 
5.3.5 Intelligent Parking Layout

5.4 General Motors
5.4.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.4.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.4.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.4.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.5 Ford
5.5.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.5.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.5.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.5.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.6 Volvo
5.6.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.6.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.6.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.6.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.7 Chery Jaguar Land Rover
5.7.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.7.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.7.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.7.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.8 Chang'an Automobile
5.8.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.8.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.8.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.8.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 
5.8.5 Automated Parking and Mobility Layout

5.9 Geely
5.9.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.9.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.9.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.9.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 
5.9.5 Automated Parking Development Plan

5.10 SAIC
5.10.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.10.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.10.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.10.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 
5.10.5 Automated Parking Layout

5.11 Great Wall Motors
5.11.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.11.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.11.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.11.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.12 XPENG Motors  
5.12.1 Profile of Autonomous Parking System  
5.12.2 Parking Space Recognition and Memory
5.12.3 One-button Parking Function

5.13 Honda 
5.13.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.13.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.13.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System
5.13.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models 

5.14 Tesla
5.14.1 Profile of Automated Parking System  
5.14.2 Main Features of Automated Parking System
5.14.3 Application Scenarios and Restrictions of Automated Parking System 
5.14.4 Automated Parking Configuration of Representative Vehicle Models
 

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