China Automotive LiDAR Industry Research Report, 2022
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LiDAR research: Chinese passenger cars will carry over 80,000 LiDAR sensors in 2022

1. The mass production of LiDAR is accelerating, and the installations are expected to exceed 80,000 units in 2022

Since 2021, LiDAR industry has entered the stage of commercialization. Local OEMs have taken the lead in mass-producing a number of models, including Xpeng P5, Aion LX PLUS, NIO ET7, and Li L9.

According to the statistics from ResearchInChina, Chinese new passenger cars were equipped with 24,700 LiDAR sensors in the first half of 2022, of which 18,400 units or 74.4% was seen in Xpeng P5.

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In the second half of 2022, there will be more than 10 new models featuring LiDAR to be delivered in China, including Xpeng G9 and WM M7, which will spur LiDAR installations to exceed 80,000 units in the full year.

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2. The "rotating mirror + MEMS" technical solution is the first choice for mass production

At present, production models mainly adopt "rotating mirror + MEMS" technical solution, such as HESAI AT128, RoboSense M1, Huawei 96-channel LiDAR, Innovusion Falcon, etc...

RoboSense launched it semi-solid-state LiDAR - M1 in June 2021. Based on 2D MEMS smart chip scanning technology, it has  “GAZE” function with intelligent zoom and detection distance of 150m for 10% reflectivity targets. So far, it has been designated by 40+ models. In 2022, it served GAC Aion LX Plus, IM L7, WM M7, Xpeng G9, Lotus, etc. 

Huawei's 96-channel hybrid solid-state LiDAR adopts a rotating mirror solution, with a field of view of 120?x25? and a maximum detection distance of 150 meters. It has been mass-produced for ARCFOX αS (Huawei HI version), Neta S, and Avatr 11, and will be applied to other models such as Saloon Mecha Dragon which will boast 4 units located at the front, rear, and both sides of the front.

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In the short term, the "rotating mirror + MEMS" solution is still the mainstream for local LiDAR installations on vehicles. In the long run, solid-state solutions (flash, OPA) and FMCW LiDAR will be play main roles.

Especially, the flash solution has achieved a breakthrough. In May 2022, LiangDao Intelligence released its first self-developed flash lateral LiDAR - LD Satellite for Chinese market, with a chip-based design and a vertical field of view of 75°-90°. It will be mass-produced in the second half of 2023. In the future, LiangDao Intelligence will combine LD Satellite with its experience in perception development and verification testing to provide LiDAR software and hardware integrated solutions for Chinese market.

A number of enterprises have deployed OPA technology, such as VanJee Technology, Litra Technology, GENIUS PROS, LuminWave, etc. Among them, VanJee Technology plans to release silicon-based OPA LiDAR with a range of 30 meters in August 2022, and automotive silicon-based OPA LiDAR in June 2024.

In addition, Chinese companies such as LeiShen Intelligent System and HESAI are developing FMCW technology. In July 2022, Aeva announced that the first Aeries? II 4D LiDAR had been produced and shipped to customers as the world's first FMCW LiDAR delivered. This will inspire breakthroughs in FMCW technology in China.

3. Mass production and delivery capabilities should be improved comprehensively

Thanks to the definite LiDAR technology route, many Chinese suppliers have improved capacity swiftly through foundries, cooperation and self-built factories.

The "Maxwell" intelligent manufacturing center invested by HESAI with nearly US$200 million is expected to be fully put into operation in 2022, with an annual capacity of more than one million units. Innovusion cooperates with Joyson Electronics. The first automotive-grade LiDAR production line has an annual output of 100,000 units. The second production line located in Xiangcheng District, Suzhou is expected to be put into operation in 2022, with a monthly capacity of 20,000 units.  

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In addition to large-scale production, suppliers are reducing LiDAR cost and accelerating mass production and applications through hardware integration and chipization. For instance, HESAI AT128 is a long-range semi-solid-state LiDAR based on a VCSEL array (the second-generation chip is provided by Lumentum). The VCSEL array embedded in the chip replaces the traditional discrete light source to significantly slash the manufacturing cost of LiDAR.

The solid-state LiDAR of LiangDao Intelligence leverages the flash technology upgrade solution - VCSEL electric drive scanning and SPAD partition receiving technology to dramatically amplify the detection distance of flash LiDAR. Plus the design of optical lens, it offers a wide field of view.

In general, Chinese LiDAR suppliers mainly focus on cost reduction in laser transceiver module (about 60% of cost). For a long time, the technology of electronic components such as lasers and detectors has been monopolized by foreign companies. However, in recent years, some Chinese enterprises have gradually broken through technical barriers, launched automotive-grade products, and secure orders from automakers.

Vertilite’s VCSEL has been certified by AEC-Q102 and IATF 16949, and won the bid for a major LiDAR customer's OEM mass production project. In March 2022, the company received investment from Huawei, Xiaomi, BYD, DJI, etc.; in August, HESAI and RoboSense became its shareholders.

Fortsense began to develop LiDAR SPAD chips in 2019, successfully taped out in 2021, and received a custom order from a leading automaker in early 2022.

1 Overview of LiDAR 
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Composition
1.3 Ranging Principle
1.4 Classification
1.4.1 Mechanical Type
1.4.2 Semi-solid State: MEMS
1.4.3 Solid-state: OPA
1.4.4 Solid-state: Flash
1.4.5 FMCW LiDAR
1.4.6 Comparison of LiDAR Technologies
1.5 Comparison of LiDAR Technologies
1.6 LiDAR Industry Chain
1.6.1 Upstream
1.6.2 Downstream

2 Chinese LiDAR Market and Trends
2.1 Status Quo
2.1.1 LiDAR OEM Mass Production Schedule in China
2.1.2 LiDAR Installation in China
2.1.3 Main LiDAR Suppliers in China
2.1.4 Technology Routes of Main LiDAR Suppliers in China
2.1.5 Core Indicator Comparison of Automotive LiDAR of Chinese Suppliers 
2.1.6 Production Line Construction of LiDAR Suppliers in China
2.1.7 Financing of Major Suppliers in China (2021-2022)
2.1.8 LiDAR-use Laser Suppliers in China
2.1.9 LiDAR-use Detector Suppliers in China
2.1.10 LiDAR Optical Module Suppliers in China
2.2 Market Trends and Forecast
2.2.1 LiDAR Technology Solutions and Trends
2.2.2  “MEMS + Rotating Mirror” Solution Will Be the Mainstream Mass Production solution in the Next 5 Years
2.2.3 LiDAR Cost Trend in China
2.2.4 Integration and Chipization Will Become the Key to LiDAR Cost Reduction 
2.2.5 Frequent Investment in LiDAR Industry Chain
2.2.6 Hardware Providers Are Transforming into Software and Hardware System Solution Providers
2.2.7 Fusion of LiDAR + Vision
2.2.8 Forecast for Chinese LiDAR Market Size

3 Models Equipped with LiDAR in China
2.1 Models Equipped with LiDAR and Delivery in China
3.2 Xpeng P5
3.3 Xpeng G9
3.4 NIO ET7
3.5 Li L9
3.6 WM M7
3.7 IM L7
3.8 Neta S
3.9 Saloon Mecha Dragon
3.10 Avatr 11
3.12 ARCFOX αS (Huawei HI Version) 
3.13 Jidu ROBO-01
3.14 HiPhi Z
3.15 WEY Mocha
3.16 Rising Auto R7

4 Chinese Automotive LiDAR Suppliers
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Manufacturing Center
4.1.3 LiDAR Products
4.1.4 AT128 LiDAR
4.1.5 QT128 LiDAR
4.1.6 Pandar128 LiDAR
4.1.7 LiDAR Technology Layout
4.1.8 LiDAR Chipization Technology
4.1.9 Partners
4.1.10 Dynamics
4.2 RoboSense
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 Development History 
4.2.3 R&D and Production 
4.2.4 Main Products and Solutions 
4.2.5 The Second-generation Semi-solid-state LiDAR: M1
4.2.6 Mass Production of M1
4.2.7 Deployment Solution of M1  
4.2.8 RS-Ruby Plus & RS-Helios
4.2.9 RS-LiDAR-Perception
4.2.10 LiDAR Solutions
4.2.11 L4+ Autonomous Driving LiDAR Perception Fusion Solution 
4.2.12 Key Partners
4.2.13 Dynamics
4.3 Huawei
4.3.1 Development History of LiDAR
4.3.2 LiDAR Products
4.3.3 LiDAR Technology
4.3.4 LiDAR Solutions
4.4 Livox
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 LiDAR Products
4.4.3 FMCW LiDAR
4.4.4 Core LiDAR Technology
4.4.5 LiDAR Ecological Dataset
4.4.6 LiDAR Solutions
4.5 LeiShen Intelligent System
4.5.1 Profile
4.5.2 R&D and Production
4.5.3 LiDAR Products 
4.5.4 Multi-channel Mechanical LiDAR
4.5.5 905nm Automotive Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR  
4.5.6 CH128X1 Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR
4.5.7 CH64W Blind-filling LiDAR with Wide FoV
4.5.8 CX128S1 Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR
4.5.9 1550nm Long-range Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR
4.5.10 Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR Deployment Solution
4.5.11 Autonomous Driving Solution
4.5.12 Application Cases 
4.5.13 Dynamics
4.6 Innovusion
4.6.1 Profile
4.6.2 Development History
4.6.3 R&D and Production
4.6.4 Pricing of Series
4.6.5 Jaguar Prime Series
4.6.6 Falcon LiDAR
4.6.7 Dynamics
4.7 VanJee Technology
4.7.1 Profile
4.7.2 LiDAR R&D and Production
4.7.3 Development History of LiDAR
4.7.4 Automotive LiDAR Technology Route
4.7.5 LiDAR for Autonomous Driving 
4.7.6 Automotive LiDAR
4.7.7 Major Customers and Cases
4.8 LiangDao Intelligence
4.8.1 Profile
4.8.2 LDSatellite Flash LiDAR
4.8.3 Flash LiDAR Technology Layout
4.8.4 LiDAR Testing and Verification Solution
4.8.5 Roadside LiDAR Perception Solution
4.8.6 Mass Production Projects and Cooperation Dynamics  
4.9 Zvision
4.9.1 Profile
4.9.2 Development History
4.9.3 R&D and Production
4.9.4 LiDAR Products 
4.9.5 Cooperation Projects
4.10 Benewake
4.10.1 Profile
4.10.2 Main Products
4.10.3 Development Route of LiDAR
4.10.4 Horn-X2 Pro LiDAR
4.10.5 Application Cases in Automotive Field
4.11 SureStar
4.11.1 Profile
4.11.2 Development History
4.11.3 Main Products
4.11.4 R-Fans LiDAR
4.11.5 C-Fans Series LiDAR
4.11.6 Core Solid-state LiDAR Technology
4.11.7 Application Cases
4.12 Litra Technology
4.12.1 Profile
4.12.2 Products & Planning
4.12.3 LIME-02A
4.12.4 OPA Solid-state Products
4.12.5 Core Technology
4.13 Lorentech
4.13.1 Profile
4.13.2 LiDAR Products and Advantages
4.13.3 I/G Series
4.14 Deepwater Optoelectronics
4.14.1 Profile 
4.14.2 Products and Solutions
4.15 RichBeam (formerly known as Yinbing Technology)
4.15.1 Profile 
4.15.2 128-channel Automotive LiDAR Products
4.15.3 32/64-channel LiDAR Products
4.16 Tanway
4.16.1 Profile
4.16.2 Main Products
4.16.3 Core Technology
4.16.4 Dynamics
4.17.1 Profile
4.17.2 LiDAR Products
4.17.3 Core Technology and Solutions
4.18 LuminWave
4.18.1 Profile
4.18.2 Main Products 
4.18.3 Core Technology
4.19 Senfoto
4.19.1 Profile
4.19.2 Products
4.19.3 Cooperation Dynamics
4.20 Others
4.20.1 AODTBJ
4.20.2 O-Net
4.20.3 Rayz Technologies

5 Chinese Enterprises Related to Automotive LiDAR Industry Chain
5.1 Focuslight Technologies 
5.1.1 Profile
5.1.2 Development History
5.1.3 Products and Revenue
5.1.4 Automotive LiDAR Solutions
5.1.5 Automotive LiDAR Products
5.1.6 Core Automotive LiDAR Technology
5.2 Everbright
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 Development History
5.2.3 Development Strategy
5.2.4 Main Products
5.2.5 Core Technology
5.2.6 Fundraising Projects
5.3 Novel Optics
5.3.1 Profile
5.3.2 Main Business and Revenue
5.3.3 Automotive Business and Progress
5.4 Optowide Technologies
5.4.1 Profile
5.4.2 Main Products
5.4.3 Automotive LiDAR Business
5.5 Vertilite
5.5.1 Profile
5.5.2 Development History
5.5.3 VCSEL Chip and Progress
5.6 Raybow Opto
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 Main Products
5.7 VisionICs Microelectronics Technology
5.7.1 Profile
5.7.2 Development History
5.7.3 Solutions
5.7.4 Main Products
5.8.1 Profile
5.8.2 Main Products
5.9 Fortsense
5.9.1 Profile
5.9.2 LiDAR Technology and Products
5.9.3 Partners

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