Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Industry Report, 2018-2019
  • Mar.2019
  • Hard Copy
  • USD $3,400
  • Pages:125
  • Single User License
    (PDF Unprintable)       
  • USD $3,200
  • Code: LS017
  • Enterprise-wide License
    (PDF Printable & Editable)       
  • USD $4,800
  • Hard Copy + Single User License
  • USD $3,600

The existing positioning technology falls into outdoor and indoor positioning. Outdoor positioning technology involves traditional satellite positioning, radar positioning, inertial measurement unit (IMU) positioning and cellular mobile network positioning. Indoor positioning technology embraces WLAN positioning, Zigbee positioning, Bluetooth positioning, ultra wideband (UWB) positioning, infrared positioning, computer vision positioning and ultrasonic positioning.

The solution to the problem of knowing where a vehicle is (initial position) and where it is going (target position) is indispensable to autonomous driving. High level of autonomous driving demands centimeter-level positioning technology. High-precision positioning technology, therefore, plays a vital role in L3-above autonomous driving.

High-precision positioning technology for autonomous driving is classified by positioning method into the three types as follows:
(1)Signal-based positioning technology such as global navigation satellite system (GNSS), UWB and 5G;
(2)Dead reckoning, an IMU-based technology that reckons current position and direction of a vehicle after learning where it was;
(3)Environmental feature matching, or LiDAR and vision sensor-based positioning, that is, matching features observed with those stored in database to know where the vehicle is and what it looks like.  


Among signal-based positioning methods, GNSS and 4G/5G are often used for outdoor positioning, and UWB for the indoor.


Through comparing different positioning technologies, 5G and vehicle body sensor fusion (combining radar, camera, LiDAR and map) are the two optimal solutions for L4/L5 autonomous driving in the densely populated areas.

Satellite positioning, however, is more applicable to sparsely populated places where it is unfitted to build 5G base stations on a large scale. 

GNSS with a meter-level positioning accuracy falls far short of autonomous driving. The centimeter-level satellite positioning needs correction of GNSS positioning errors caused by ionosphere, which is often done by real time kinematic (RTK), a technology having evolved from a conventional 1+1 or 1+2 system to a wide area differential one. The continuous operational reference station (CORS) built in some cities improves RTK measurement range significantly. 

Correcting satellite positioning errors by multiple stationary CORS on the ground is also called “ground based augmentation”. Qianxun SI has constructed over 2,400 ground based augmentation stations across China as its Beidou-based positioning system has served a total of 190 million users.

Ground based augmentation system (GBAS) offers limited coverage albeit with a high accuracy. The system only works for targets in the coverage of its communication signals which find it hard to reach high altitudes, seas, deserts and mountains, so it misses out a large area. To meet the needs of high-precision positioning on a larger scale, correction parameters collected from CORS are sent to satellites for broadcast, so that user end can be free of inadequate communication capacity. Such a correction method is referred to as satellite based augmentation.

Ground based augmentation system (GBAS) has so many technical defects from limited communication capacity and non-uniform architecture to heavy concurrent load and high maintenance cost that GBAS is bound to be replaced by satellite based augmentation system (SBAS).

Autonomous vehicles need to not only carry sensors like LiDAR but be capable of centimeter-level positioning for self-driving in any scenario. SBAS will be the best choice for L5 autonomous driving for its unique ability to provide rapid global coverage for billions of users at the same time and at an ultralow cost.

Satellite navigation and positioning system is heading to the integration between SBAS and GBAS, between communication and navigation.

Many a company is setting about building SBAS.


The large number of competitors means that users have to bind receiver hardware or some one’s SBAS, which goes against the prevalence of high-precision positioning technology in mass market. Sapcorda was thus founded.

On August 8, 2017, Bosch, Geo++, Mitsubishi Electric and u-blox announced the creation of Sapcorda Services GmbH, a joint venture that will bring high precision GNSS positioning services to mass market applications. Sapcorda will offer globally available GNSS positioning services via internet and satellite broadcast and will enable accurate GNSS positioning at centimeter level. The services are mainly for autonomous vehicle, industrial and consumer markets. The real-time correction data service is delivered in a public and open way and does not bind with receiver hardware or systems.

Sapcorda wants to be a trailblazer providing new-generation intercontinental GNSS correction data services in Europe, America and the rest of the world. Yet the company has not released any information since its inception. It may suffer a setback in multi-party cooperation or may be just engrossed in a big plan.

It is imaginable that coordinating its shareholders, Bosch, Mitsubishi Electric and u-blox, all of which are big names in technology world, is almost a tall order.

U-blox focuses on development and sale of GNSS chips and modules, and has more than 5,900 customers in 66 countries. Its unit shipment surged from 4.5 million to 90 million between 2007 and 2017. In OEM market, it is a GPS chip supplier of Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Ferrari, Porsche and Audi among other auto brands. Its latest F9 GNSS technology platform offers mainstream GNSS correction services (processing positioning correction data provided by Qianxun SI), and an open interface to GNSS correction service providers.  

Bosch has forayed into most autonomous driving industry chain links, of course, including the key technology, high-precision positioning. Bosch already provides inertial sensors as it did in 2016 when SMI130, a 6-axis inertial motion sensor, was unveiled. As an inertial sensor bellwether, InvenSens has been a long-term sole supplier of motion sensor modules for Apple iPhone. In May 2017, Bosch won orders from Apple to supply the next iPhone with some of its motion sensors, breaking the monopoly of InvenSens.  

Bosch also has strong technology competence in the fields of automotive camera, radar and LiDAR, staying ahead of its counterparts in installations of cameras and radars. Its three high-precision positioning solutions are applied to scenarios of highway, city road and long non-GNSS tunnel, respectively: 

20120114.gifAutomotive camera + radar based positioning technology;
20120114.gifGPS+ correction technology, providing vehicle motion and position sensors (VMPS);
20120114.gifBosch road feature + HD map based positioning technology.

Mitsubishi Electric develops a positioning method---“centimeter level augmentation service” (CLAS) with data broadcast from Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). The company is the major contractor of the government’s QZSS project. The solution runs by using data from satellites, ground sensors to detect vehicle position and “positioning-augmentation” algorithm to correct some errors. CLAS algorithm enables a centimeter-level accuracy compared with the 10-meter of a general satellite, with horizontal accuracy of 12cm and vertical accuracy of 24cm. 

Mitsubishi Electric names its autonomous driving technology “Diamond Safety”. The self-sensing driving technology combines various peripheral-sensing technologies, including a forward-monitoring radar with wide viewing angle, a forward-monitoring camera and a backward side-monitoring radar. Its infrastructural driving technology uses high-accuracy 3D mapping in combination with CLAS broadcast from QZSS.

Apart from the three giants working hard on poisoning technology, SpaceX, founded by Elon Musk, the co-founder and CEO at Tesla, has outlined a more ambitious plan -- Starlink internet satellite constellation project.

Musk's Starlink 
With Starlink, SpaceX intends to put a 4,425-satellite constellation in low earth orbit, thereby providing high-speed, cable-like internet to every corner of the planet. The project is expected to cost a total of around USD10 billion. Each satellite measures 4 x 1.8 x 1.2 m and weighs 390 kg or so. Their orbits are between 1,150 and 1,325 km above the Earth's surface.

SpaceX will officially launch satellites in 2019 and provide limited services by 2020. It is expected that the business will have 40 million subscribers or more and earn over $30 billion in revenue by 2025.

In November 2018, SpaceX adjusted its technical solution and filed a request to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in which it details plans to send 1,584 satellites to orbit at an altitude of 550km, about one-third of the originally planned 4,400+ satellites. The latency in signals will also be reduced from 25 milliseconds to 15 milliseconds.

In February 2019, SpaceX filed an earth-station license application with the Federal Communications Commission. The application seeks blanket approval for up to a million earth stations that would be used by customers of the Starlink satellite internet service.  The stations would rely on a flat-panel, phased-array system to transmit and receive signals in the Ku-band to and from the Starlink constellation.

According to Liu Jingnan, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Starlink features high precision, high availability and high reliability. It can not only provide broadband Internet services, but also allow communication, and can be used as centimeter-level positioning augmentation and navigation services as well. Therefore, it is suitable for high-precision positioning and serves sectors such as autonomous driving.

China also has a Starlink-like project -- "Hongyan" system of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation. It consists of 54 core satellites and 270 small supporting satellites, which together form a 324-satellite constellation. The Hongyan system also features satellite positioning augmentation, which can further improve the positioning accuracy for the Beidou navigation system. It will launch 6 satellites by 2020 to realize LAN link verification, and complete the launch of 54 backbone satellites by 2023.

Since 2018, autonomous driving has slowed down the pace of development, and L2-L3 has remained a focus for the moment. The large-scale application of L4-above AD requires that communication networks should transfer from C-V2X to 5G-V2X and satellite positioning should shift from large-scale ground-based augmentation (Qianxun SI, etc.) to large-scale satellite-based augmentation (Starlink, Hongyan, etc.).

The autonomous driving industry is advancing gradually in due order and the vision after 2023 is worth anticipating.

1 Concept and Technology of High-precision Positioning for Autonomous Driving 
1.1 Positioning Technology
1.1 High-precision positioning of Autonomous Driving
1.2 Classification of High-precision Positioning Technology 
1.3 Signal-based Positioning
1.3.1 Satellite-based Positioning
1.3.2 UWB-based Positioning
1.3.3 5G-based Positioning
1.3.4 Positioning System Integrating Communications with GNSS 
1.3.5 Communication-Navigation Integration and Starlink
1.4 Positioning Based on Dead Reckoning - Inertial Navigation System
1.4.1 Gyroscope
1.4.2 Accelerometer
1.5 Positioning Based on Environmental Feature Matching
1.5.1 Lidar-based Positioning
1.5.2 Vision Technology-based Positioning
1.6 Integrated Positioning
1.6.1 Combination of GNSS and IMU
1.6.2 Baidu multi-sensor Positioning Technology Solution
1.6.3 Lane-level Positioning Based on Vision and Radar

2 Positioning Chips, Modules and Related Companies
2.1 u-blox
2.1.1 Development History
2.1.2 Global Operations
2.1.3 Business and Product Technology Roadmap
2.1.4 GNSS Positioning Platform Products
2.1.5 ZED-F9P GNSS Positioning Modules
2.1.6 Global GNSS Correction Services
2.2 STMicroelectronics
2.2.1 Automotive Business
2.2.2 Automotive Business and Core Technology
2.2.3 High-precision Positioning Chip
2.2.4 Teseco APP
2.2.5 ST ASM330LHH
2.3 ADI
2.3.1 Inertial Navigation Products
2.3.2 ADIS16490
2.4 Decawave 
2.5 InvenSens
2.6 Bosch

3 Inertial Navigation Positioning Technologies and Companies
3.1 Development trend
3.2 Market size
3.3.1 Automotive Inertial Navigation System
3.3.2 Key Features and Commercialization of Products
3.4 eCHIEV
3.4.1 GEMINI OpenPilot Platform
3.4.2 EC-MU101 Combined Positioning Units
3.5 Xilang Technology
3.6 StarNeto
3.7 Navtech 

4 Signal-based Positioning Technologies and Companies
4.1 Satellite-based High-precision Positioning Technology 
4.1.1 Overview of SBAS  
4.1.2 Trimble SBAS 
4.2 5G-based Positioning Technology
Strengths and Challenges of 5G Positioning
4.3 UWB-based Positioning
4.4 Qianxun SI
4.4.1 Autonomous Driving High-precision Positioning Solution 
4.4.2 Telematics High-precision Positioning Solution 
4.4.3 Time-Space City Brain Project
4.4.4 Create OEM High-precision Positioning Modules with Quectel  
4.4.5 Huawei Vehicle Terminal Integrates Positioning Services of Qianxun SI
4.4.6 Development Trends
4.5 Sapcorda
4.6 Mitsubishi Electric
CLAS Services
4.7 Hi-Target 
4.7.1 Positioning Technology Development History
4.7.2 Layout in Autonomous Driving 
4.7.3 Hi-RTP Global Positioning Service Technology Solution
4.7.4 Hi-RTP Global Positioning Service Construction Planning and Product Mass Production Solution
4.8 BroadGNSS Technology
4.9 South Survey
4.10 Swift Navigation
4.10.1 Piksi Multi and Duro GPS Receiver
4.10.2 Swift Starling Positioning Engine
4.11 Unistrong 
Beidou Navigation Agricultural Machinery Autonomous Driving System
4.12 Kunchen
4.12.1 Hawkeye Ultra-Wideband Positioning System Architecture
4.12.2 Industrial Customers and High-precision Positioning Solution 
4.12.3 AVP Application Solution Based on UWB Positioning Technology
4.12.4 Application Cases
4.13 Jingwei Technology

5 Integrated Positioning Technology Solution and Companies
5.1 Integrated Positioning Technology 
5.2 Novatel
5.2.1 Product Line
5.2.2 SPAN Inertial Navigation System Configuration and Level 1 System
5.2.3 SPAN Inertial Navigation Level 2/3 System
5.2.4 Inertial Navigation System Application
5.3 Trimble Navigation
5.3.1 Trimble RTX Positioning Technology 
5.3.2 Trimble Offers High-precision Positioning for Cadillac
5.4 BDStar Navigation 
5.5 CTI 
5.6 Starcart 
5.7 Baidu
5.7.1 Baidu’s Multi-sensor Fusion Positioning System Architecture
5.7.2 Point Cloud Positioning Algorithm Architecture
5.7.3 RTK Positioning
5.7.4 Inertial Navigation Solution
5.7.5 Multi-module Fusion
5.7.6 Multi-sensor Fusion Positioning Hardware Architecture
5.8.1 Business Layout 
5.8.2 Three Services
5.9 AutoNavi ( 
5.9.1 Camera-based Positioning Solution
5.9.2 Integrated Solution Based on HD Map and High-precision Positioning
5.9.3 Technology Roadmap 

Global and China Automotive Lightweight (Materials) Industry Report, 2019-2025

As an effective way to improve dynamic performance, reduce fuel consumption and cut emissions, lightweight holds the trend for automotive sector across the world. Global automobile lightweight market...

Global and China Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) Industry Report, 2019-2025

China’s AGV industry ushered in explosive growth along with new technologies and new scenarios in recent years, with its AGV sales surging to 29,600 units in 2018 from 1,260 units in 2011, showing a C...

Global and China Automotive Wiring Harness, Connector and Cable Industry Report, 2019

Automotive wiring harness companies worldwide can be divided into four echelons. The first-echelon players are just Yazaki and Sumitomo Electric Industries, each earning more than $10 billion a year, ...

Global and China Aluminum Alloy Automotive Sheet Industry Report, 2019-2025

Global automobile sales reach at least 90 million units annually as people live a better life over recent years. A combination of factors like environment pollution, fuel economy and longer new energy...

Global and China Automotive Voice Industry Report, 2019

Automotive Voice Market: Installation in New Passenger Cars in China Hit 28.7% As software and hardware technologies advance, voice has been a key way for people to communicate with machines, particu...

China Heavy Truck Industry Report, 2019-2025

Global heavy truck market showed an upward mobility in the past decade, with its sales rising 6.2% year on year to 2.39 million units in 2018 and presenting a CAGR of 3.5% between 2008 and 2018. In ...

Global and China Lithium-ion Battery Anode Material Industry Report, 2019-2025

Lithium-ion battery finds wide application in consumer electronics and gets increasingly used in automotive sector, with its market having been ballooning since 2009 and approximating $43.5 billion wo...

China Passenger Car Camera Market Report, 2019Q2

Passenger Car Camera Market: Front-view Monocular Camera Installations Soared by 104% in 2019Q2 from the Same Period of Last Year.In the first half of 2019, around 10.89 million cameras were installed...

China Low-speed Electric Vehicle (LSEV) Industry Report, 2019-2025

In 2018, about 45.42 million low-speed electric vehicles (LSEV) were produced in China, a 3.9% rise on an annualized basis (a 1.6-fold figure compared with China’s output of 27.81 million automobiles ...

Global and China Automotive Gateway Industry Report, 2019

Gateway Industry Research: Increasingly Powerful Gateway Becomes the Security Core of Intelligent Connected Vehicle The "Global and China Automotive Gateway Industry Report 2019" published recently b...

Global and China Telematics-Box(T-Box) Industry Report, 2019

More than 14 Million Passenger Cars will be Equipped with T-Box in China in 2023 In China, passenger car T-Box installation in OEM market reached 6.13 million sets in 2018, before 2.25 million ones w...

Report on Chinese Automakers’ Telematics Products in 2019

It is Shown from the Findings of Our Research on Chinese Automakers’ Telematics Products: Telematics is Available to 49% New Vehicles in Beijing, Compared with a Mere 18% in Heilongjiang. In the firs...

Global and China Fuel Cell Industry Chain Report , 2019-2025

The thriving research on fuel cell is a result of global fossil fuel resources to be exhausted within a century. Hydrogen fuel cell as a kind of renewable resource has plenty of merits: (1) an energy ...

Global and China Electric Vehicle (BEV, PHEV) Industry Report, 2019-2025

As per current cost, the market will be at a tipping point in 2022 when a battery electric vehicle will have almost the same cost as a fuel vehicle, which means electric vehicle can be selected on an ...

Global and China Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) Industry Report, 2019-2025

Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), as one of the three major safety systems for a vehicle, can provide early warning before the tires show signs of danger so as to avoid major traffic accidents. ...

Global and China Automotive Lighting Industry Report, 2019-2025

Global automotive lighting market was worth about $32.8 billion with a year-on-year increase of 8.6% in 2018, and the figure is predicted to reach $57.0 billion in 2025 as demand for intelligent lamps...

China Passenger Car Camera Market Report, 2019Q1

Passenger Car Camera Market: Front-view Monocular Camera Installation Soared by 71.7% in 2019Q1 from the Same Period Last Year. In China, front view monocular camera is the one largely demanded in pa...

Global and China Tire Industry Report, 2019-2025

In 2018, global automobile market encountered its first downturn for the five years. Global automobile production edged down 1.7% on an annualized basis due to weak demand and political rivalries amon...

2005- All Rights Reserved 京ICP备05069564号-1 京公网安备1101054484号